Alien Enemy

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Alien Enemy

During World War II, the U.S. government moved thousands of Japanese Americans to detention camps because it considered them alien enemies while the country was at war with Japan. NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION
During World War II, the U.S. government moved thousands of Japanese Americans to detention camps because it considered them alien enemies while the country was at war with Japan.

In International Law, a foreign born citizen or subject of a nation or power that is hostile to the United States.

An alien enemy is an individual who, due to permanent or temporary allegiance to a hostile power, is regarded as an enemy in wartime. Under federal law, an alien enemy is a native, citizen, or subject of a foreign nation, state, or sovereign with which the United States is at war. Such a person is considered an alien enemy as long as the United States remains at war as determined through proclamation by the president or resolution by Congress. 8 C.F.R. § 331.1 (2002). During times of declared war, Congress has permitted the president to order the apprehension, restraint, and deportation of alien enemies. 50 U.S.C.A. § 21 (2003).

The term alien enemy, as it is defined by federal law, does apply easily to individuals who belong to organizations that are not affiliated with a foreign sovereign. Nevertheless, the treatment of such Aliens mirrors treatment permitted by federal law for aliens who are citizens of foreign nations. In the wake of the September 11th Attacks, Congress passed the Authorization for the Use of Military Force Joint Resolution, Pub. L. No. 107-40, 115 Stat. 224, permitting the president to use force to detain and try non-citizens in the War on Terrorism. On November 13, 2001, President george w. bush issued a military order [66 Fed. Reg. 57,831–57,836 (2001)] setting forth the military's policy for the treatment of non-citizens in the war against Terrorism. The order applies to individuals who are or were members of the terrorist organization al Qaeda; have engaged in, aided or abetted, or conspired to commit acts of international terrorism; or has harbored such a non-citizen.

Further readings

Green, Leslie C. 1999. Essays on the Modern Law of War. 2d ed. Ardsley, N.Y.: Transnationals.

Fehlings, Gregory. 2002. "Storm on the Constitution: The First Deportation Law." Tulsa Journal of Comparative and International Law 63.

Levie, Howard S. 1993. Terrorism in War: The Law of War Crimes. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana.

Schmidt, Michael N., and Leslie C. Green. 1997. Levie on the Law of War. Newport, R.I.: Naval War College.

References in periodicals archive ?
upon the similarity it bears to the 1798 Alien Enemy Act.
Overnight I became an alien enemy," Katagiri, now 79, told about 100 people Saturday at the Eugene Day of Remembrance Committee's "Forced Journeys" presentation at the University of Oregon Many Nations Longhouse.
Watkins, the Court held that "courts will entertain his plea for freedom from executive custody only to ascertain the existence of a state of war and whether he is an alien enemy.
Citizens from enemy foreign countries who were thought to present a danger, but who could not be charged with a crime have been interned as enemy aliens under the Alien Enemy Act, 50 U.
Charged with saving Voyager, her crew and the Delta Quadrant from a threatening alien enemy, gamers must battle against both new and familiar enemies, including the Borg, Klingon, Hirogen and more.
It was then that young Hoover moved from the Justice Department's Alien Enemy Bureau to the Radical Division.
The story is rich with game details, including gameplay impressions, a first look at four of the alien enemy types, insight into combat strategies and tactics, the new base setup and more.
The Spielberg post-invasion thriller on FX is heating up nicely as former ER medic Noah Wyle and his refugee rabble take the war to the alien enemy.
Her character is sexy and sassy - and brings a much-needed spark to proceedings which reach a crescendo with the big smackdown against the alien enemy when Bay lets fly with all manner of pyrotechnics, special effects and stunts.
After successfully ridding Britain of the evil Chimera in the first game, the battles in the upcoming inevitable sequel take place in 1950s America and, of all places, Iceland as you fight to stop the world being overrun by the alien enemy.
Spectrum team must once again face the inscrutable alien enemy, the Mysterons in a battle for the very existence of Earth - with the indestructible Captain Scarlet leading the fight.