Alien Enemy


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Alien Enemy

During World War II, the U.S. government moved thousands of Japanese Americans to detention camps because it considered them alien enemies while the country was at war with Japan. NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION
During World War II, the U.S. government moved thousands of Japanese Americans to detention camps because it considered them alien enemies while the country was at war with Japan.
NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION

In International Law, a foreign born citizen or subject of a nation or power that is hostile to the United States.

An alien enemy is an individual who, due to permanent or temporary allegiance to a hostile power, is regarded as an enemy in wartime. Under federal law, an alien enemy is a native, citizen, or subject of a foreign nation, state, or sovereign with which the United States is at war. Such a person is considered an alien enemy as long as the United States remains at war as determined through proclamation by the president or resolution by Congress. 8 C.F.R. § 331.1 (2002). During times of declared war, Congress has permitted the president to order the apprehension, restraint, and deportation of alien enemies. 50 U.S.C.A. § 21 (2003).

The term alien enemy, as it is defined by federal law, does apply easily to individuals who belong to organizations that are not affiliated with a foreign sovereign. Nevertheless, the treatment of such Aliens mirrors treatment permitted by federal law for aliens who are citizens of foreign nations. In the wake of the September 11th Attacks, Congress passed the Authorization for the Use of Military Force Joint Resolution, Pub. L. No. 107-40, 115 Stat. 224, permitting the president to use force to detain and try non-citizens in the War on Terrorism. On November 13, 2001, President george w. bush issued a military order [66 Fed. Reg. 57,831–57,836 (2001)] setting forth the military's policy for the treatment of non-citizens in the war against Terrorism. The order applies to individuals who are or were members of the terrorist organization al Qaeda; have engaged in, aided or abetted, or conspired to commit acts of international terrorism; or has harbored such a non-citizen.

Further readings

Green, Leslie C. 1999. Essays on the Modern Law of War. 2d ed. Ardsley, N.Y.: Transnationals.

Fehlings, Gregory. 2002. "Storm on the Constitution: The First Deportation Law." Tulsa Journal of Comparative and International Law 63.

Levie, Howard S. 1993. Terrorism in War: The Law of War Crimes. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana.

Schmidt, Michael N., and Leslie C. Green. 1997. Levie on the Law of War. Newport, R.I.: Naval War College.

References in periodicals archive ?
The Alien Enemy Control Unit camp in Crystal City, Texas, was the program's only detention center specifically designed to accommodate families.
45) The Supreme Court has upheld internment programs promulgated under the Alien Enemy Act.
He is now keen to promote this as the first film in which he plays a villain, although his character and Daniel's come together to fight the common alien enemy who want to exterminate all life on the planet.
We visited our local takeaway as it was hungry work visiting the various planets and fighting the alien enemy through the Milky Way.
In the same way that Batman Begins turned back the clock on the dark knight's life and times, the action here begins as we meet Captain Kirk's dad at the helm of a ship going into battle with a giant alien enemy.
With alien enemy Spider-Man Venom, Sandman and the New Goblin all on the scene it is action-packed all the way.
In July of 1943, the Fuhr brothers and a thousand other alien enemy internees were taken by train to the huge internment camp run by the Immigration and Naturalization Service in Crystal City, Texas.
upon the similarity it bears to the 1798 Alien Enemy Act.
Property was confiscated by Confederate courts simply if it could be shown that such property belonged to an alien enemy.
Overnight I became an alien enemy," Katagiri, now 79, told about 100 people Saturday at the Eugene Day of Remembrance Committee's "Forced Journeys" presentation at the University of Oregon Many Nations Longhouse.