Aristotle

(redirected from Aristotelian)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to Aristotelian: Aristotelian philosophy

Aristotle

Aristotle. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
Aristotle.
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

Aristotle was born in 384 b.c., in Stagira, Greece. He achieved prominence as an eminent philosopher who greatly influenced the basic principles of philosophy and whose ideologies are still practiced today.

Aristotle was a student of the renowned philosopher Plato and tutored Alexander the Great, who became King of Macedonia in 336 b.c.

Aristotle established his own school in the Lyceum, near Athens, in 335 b.c. He often lectured his students in the portico, or walking place, of the Lyceum. The school was subsequently called Peripatetic, after the Greek word peripatos for "walking place."

In 323 b.c. the reign of Alexander ended with his death, and Aristotle sought refuge at Chalcis.

Aristotle formulated numerous beliefs about the reasoning power of humans and the essence of being. He stressed the importance of nature and instructed his pupils to closely study natural phenomena. When teaching science, he believed that all ideas must be supported by explanations based upon facts.

Concerning the realm of politics, Aristotle propounded that humans are inherently political and demonstrate an essential part of their humanity when participating in civic affairs.

Philosophy was a subject of great interest to Aristotle, and he theorized that philosophy was the foundation of the ability to understand the basic axioms that comprise knowledge. In order to study and question completely, Aristotle viewed logic as the basic means of reasoning. To think logically, one had to apply the syllogism, which was a form of thought comprised of two premises that led to a conclusion; Aristotle taught that this form can be applied to all logical reasoning.

"Man is by nature a political animal."
—Aristotle

To understand reality, Aristotle theorized that it must be categorized as substance, quality, quantity, relation, determination in time and space, action, passion or passivity, position, and condition. To know and understand the reality of an object required an explanation of its material cause, which is why it exists or its composition; its formal cause, or its design; its efficient cause, or its creator; and its final cause, or its reason for being.

Aristotle agreed with his mentor, Plato, concerning the field of ethics. The goodness of a being depended upon the extent to which that being achieved its highest potential. For humans, the ultimate good is the continual use and development of their reasoning powers to fullest capacity. To effect fulfillment and contentment, humans must follow a life of contemplation, rather than pleasure.

The fundamental source of Aristotle's theories were his lectures to his students, which were compiled into several volumes. They include Organum, which discusses logic; Physics; Metaphysics; De Anima, concerning the soul; Rhetoric; Politics; Nichomachean Ethics and Eudemian Ethics, involving principles of conduct; and De Poetica, or poetics.

He also wrote Constitution of Athens, a description of the foundations of the government of Athens. The work was discovered in the late nineteenth century.

Aristotle died in 322 b.c., in Chalcis, Greece.

References in periodicals archive ?
intuitable--front-and-center for philosophy, as is typical for Aristotelian thinkers, with the justification that it is how we intuit the world.
without realizing that the Aristotelian Indo-Europeans are today only a small minority in this world (although to a large extent in control).
Because his intent is to situate the Aristotelian view within this rubric, Echenique steers clear of debating the relative merits of the two sorts of moral responsibility.
Gotthelf believes that one of his most important contributions to Aristotelian studies lies in his account of teleology in the biological writings.
This collection of essays presents contemporary views on the history of and present import of Aristotelian ethics, advancing both criticisms and defenses of (neo-)Aristotelian.
This book sets out to introduce key ideas and concepts, examining meaning not in an Aristotelian sense (or in the many theories of meaning following from Aristotle) couched in abstract verbalism and referents.
Even more studying needs to be done to get to grips with some tricky handicaps at Dundalk, where Aristotelian has a fine chance of getting off the mark in the 7.
In describing human nature he (problematically and somewhat arbitrarily) sees "the issue as a choice between two alternatives,' New Darwinism and Aristotelian virtue ethics, "both ambitious and imperfect" (1).
Fitterer draws on key thinkers in ancient and contemporary virtue ethics to defend the insightful thesis that, although virtue ethics gives a certain kind of priority to the experience of the subject, objectivity plays an important role in understanding what it means in Aristotelian terms to be virtuous.
The concept of the Scientific Revolution has, from the start, been about physics and astronomy, about matter and motion, and about the replacement of Aristotelian and scholastic natural philosophy with a quantified and mechanistic understanding of nature.
Written by Kelvin Knight (senior lecturer in politics, London Metropolitan University), Aristotelian Philosophy: Ethics and Politics from Aristotle to MacIntyre is a scholarly intellectual history of Aristotelian philosophy, and its long-running importance up to the present day.