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The optical relay system will be above most of the atmosphere, minimizing the adverse effects caused by atmospheric turbulence.
The first in-flight firing of the Beacon Illuminator Laser in conjunction with the Track Illuminator Laser demonstrated the ability of the Northrop Grumman-developed Beacon Illuminator Laser to provide the signal used to measure atmospheric turbulence, as part of the Beam Control/Fire Control system.
The presence and persistence of atmospheric turbulence means that the same telescope at the best site in the world actually produces images of stars blurred to a diameter at least 10 times greater than the telescope's diffraction limit.
One of the major challenges facing FSO communication systems is scintillation or atmospheric turbulence.
Atmospheric turbulence limits the performance of current laser designators by spreading the beam.
Primmerman and his group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington made the first corrections for atmospheric turbulence with the aid of a laser beam in August 1988, working with a 60-centimeter telescope in Hawaii.
Flight Safety has been working with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), government agencies & officials, the Airline Pilots Association (ALPA), and major airports to develop its SOCRATES (Sensor for Optically Characterizing Remote Atmospheric Turbulence Emanating Sound) technology within a cost effective system to monitor "wake vortex turbulence.
It is similar to the apparent twinkling of stars caused by atmospheric turbulence.
1 arc-second, he notes that in practice atmospheric turbulence usually prevents any device from achieving such high resolution at optical wavelengths (SN: 11/24/90, p.
The lightweight solar craft was instrumented with a sophisticated atmospheric turbulence measurement system (ATMS) on seven long booms mounted across the leading edge of the wing.
The atmospheric turbulence that adds a twinkle to a star's appearance also blurs the stellar images produced by ground-based astronomical telescopes.

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