Control variables comprise the closing return volatility ([sigma]), the market value in logarithm (InMV), the logarithm of the average trading volume in [euro] (InV), the average postlisting closing price in logarithm (InP), the Herfindhal- Hirschmann index of ownership concentration measured after the IPO (HERF), a binary variable
equal to one if there is a lockup period (Lock-up), a binary variable
equal to one if there is a liquidity provider contract (LP), the managers' holdings after the IPO (MAN), a binary variable
equal to one for Nouveau Marche or Altemext issues (GM), and a binary variable
equal to one for new technologies firms (NTIC).
To control for these differences, we include a binary variable
denoting mutual insurers (Mutual) and a secondary binary variable
denoting firms that are not of the stock or mutual organizational form (Other) in our models.
Since each defined discrete constant represents the potential discrete solution of its corresponding continuous variable, the binary variables
As indicated in the table, the binary variables
identify those who correctly noted that treatment may prevent the transmission of the disease to the baby during delivery and that medical care may enable infected individuals to live longer.
Although the binary variable
S in Equation (1) captures the current status of school age children, it does not measure the achievement of those who are not in school at the time of the survey.
APPENDIX: CORE GSS VARIABLES Variable Definition GSS Question Age Age of respondent Respondents age Black Binary variable
equal to What race do you one if the respondent consider yourself?
MBS P&I payment day, pre-GSE policy is a binary variable
equal to 1 on the 15th and 25th of the month, or the first business day thereafter, before the change in GSE credit policy on July 1, 2006.
2001) in a manner not controlled for with the percentage of slave population and the South binary variable
, then our results might overstate the relationship between legal origins and current levels of economic freedom.
Marital status was coded as a binary variable
(0 = single or divorced and 1 = married).
511) jogging in the past 12 mo Population Binary variable
equal to 1 if the 0.
Our measure of control over life events was a binary variable
set to 1 for persons who responded "disagree" or "strongly disagree" and was 0 for persons who indicated other levels of agreement with the statement.
Political disorder itself is instrumented by a binary variable
of the presence of an armed militia.