symbiosis

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Interestingly, induced resistance was not found to be a factor among the fungal pathogens studied, which included a biotrophic Basidiomycete [Uromyces rumicis (Schumach.
The biotrophic transport of carbohydrate from alga to animal.
Most of the nematodes that are parasitic to different plant species are characterized as obligate biotrophic parasites and exert harmful effects on agricultural production by direct damage to crops or serving as vectors for plant invading viruses.
Genes responsible for the host specificity in an obliagte biotrophic fungus are unknown.
gloeosporioides in papaya (CHAU; ALVAREZ, 1983) because these species did not invade the host cells to form a biotrophic relationship with the protoplast.
Thus, the fundamental difference between necrotrophic and biotrophic parasitism is often reflected in the extent of host cell-wall degradation (Cooper, 1983).
We also found that plants sprayed with CuCl2 had a higher content of salicylic acid (unpublished data) which is an important signal involved in plant defense against biotrophic pathogens.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of the Phylum Glomeromycota, soil-inhabiting obligate biotrophic fungi, can form the mutualistic symbiosis with the host plant (Bainard et al.