calcar

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The main approaches to translating foreign words and expressions into the native language based on foreignizing and domesticating strategies have been analysed, and their advantages and disadvantages, depending on the determined status of a particular language and the traditional attitudes of linguists and translators from a particular country to the use of borrowings, calques, translation changes and other translation techniques have been described.
Among the attested examples, this word exists as a borrowing proper (word), it can undergo a partial morphological assimilation (augmentation-wordzicho, tordzicho); at times one can find a linguistic calque (stowo).
But few calques have degenerated so bizarrely in such a short a period.
Smith provides very interesting introductions to both the dominance of French in Europe and Russia and the process of developing calques.
The total amount of loan translations or calques is 36:
Similarly, the Mesoamerican language area has a 'shape' preoccupation, which is reflected in body part calques and various systems of contrastive locative verbs (Campbell et al.
While Tolkien does spend significant efforts guiding the reader to this important revelation via his signaling calques, this calquing does not end with the guards' judgments of the fellowship, making it unlikely that its main purpose is the privileging of discretion over orders.
L'auteur rend compte du processus graduel par lequel l'Etat canadien a refoule les institutions ancestrales de commandement des collectivites autochtones pour les remplacer, conformement aux pouvoirs prevus par la Loi sur les Indiens, par les mecanismes electoraux calques sur le modele de Westminster.
It is, therefore, as Biscardi explains, "not by chance that calques and transpositions from Italian to dialect, present to a conspicuous degree in so much 'poetry in dialect' of the twentieth century, are not detectable in Cirese's poetry" (151).
The author proposes a typology of borrowing, from the frequent calques (colpo di stato) to phonetic transfers (Ital.
Southwest; the use of serial and/or situationally selective language, again as in the Southwest, where many families followed the practice that when the firstborn child entered school all use of Spanish would cease in the home except when the grandparents were present; and, in the case of the quite fully bilingual, the use of codeswitching calques as vehicles for the crossing and recrossing of the divide.
Euphemisms and calques from Spanish evoke the impact of insults in a bantering mock argument between Pilar and Agustin in Chapter Nine: