Chirograph


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Related to Chirograph: chirographic, chirography

CHIROGRAPH, conveyancing. Signifies a deed or public instrument in writing. Chirographs were anciently attested by the subscription and crosses of witnesses; afterwards, to prevent frauds and concealments, deeds of mutual covenant were made in a script and rescript, or in a part and counterpart; and in the middle, between the two copies, they drew the capital letters of the alphabet, and then tallied, or cut asunder in an indented manner, the sheet or skin of parchment, one of which parts being delivered to each of the parties, were proved authentic by matching with and answering to one another. Deeds thus made were denominated syngrapha, by the canonists, because that word, instead of the letters of the alphabet, or the word chirographum, was used. 2 Bl. Com. 296. This method of preventing counterfeiting, or of detecting counterfeits, is now used by having some ornament or some word engraved or printed at one end of certificates of stocks, checks, and a variety of other instruments, which are bound up in a book, and after they are executed, are cut asunder through such ornament or word.
     2. Chirograph is also the last part of, a fine of land, commonly called the foot of the fine. It is an instrument of writing beginning with these. words: "This is the final agreement," &c. It includes the whole matter, reciting the parties, day, year and place, and before Whom the fine was acknowledged and levied. Cruise, Dig. tit. 35, c. 2, s. 52. Vide Chambers' Diet. h.t.; Encyclopaedia Americana, Charter; Encyclopedie de D'Alembert, h.t.; Pothier, Pand. tom. xxii. p. 73.

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The court had acknowledged the considerable legal evidence for Francesco's custody, including the seventeenth-century papal chirograph by the Barberini pope Urban VIII that denied women the right to custody of Barberini children unless there was no male relative capable of doing so or their deceased husbands had designated them in this role.
Francis underlined the body's importance one day before the meeting opened, by issuing a chirograph, or legal document, making the group permanent and giving himself the latitude to name additional members.
The author investigates a multitude of primary documents, including papal chirographs, real estate contracts, payment records, memoranda, parish registers, drawings, and the pope's own diary, to reveal the pontiff's complex and thoughtful initiatives.