Napoleonic Code

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Napoleonic Code

The first modern organized body of law governing France, also known as the Code Napoleon or Code Civil, enacted by Napoléon I in 1804.

In 1800, Napoléon I appointed a commission of four persons to undertake the task of compiling the Napoleonic Code. Their efforts, along with those of J. J. Cambacérès, were instrumental in the preparation of the final draft. The Napoleonic Code assimilated the private law of France, which was the law governing transactions and relationships between individuals. The Code, which is regarded by some commentators as the first modern counterpart to Roman Law, is currently in effect in France in an amended form.

The Napoleonic Code is a revised version of the Roman law or Civil Law, which predominated in Europe, with numerous French modifications, some of which were based on the Germanic law that had been in effect in northern France. The code draws upon the Institutes of the Roman Corpus Juris Civilis for its categories of the civil law: property rights, such as licenses; the acquisition of property, such as trusts; and personal status, such as legitimacy of birth.

Napoléon applied the code to the territories he governed—namely, some of the German states, the low countries, and northern Italy. It was extremely influential in Spain and, eventually, in Latin America as well as in all other European nations except England, where the Common Law prevailed. It was the harbinger, in France and abroad, of codifications of other areas of law, such as Criminal Law, Civil Procedure, and Commercial Law. The Napoleonic Code served as the prototype for subsequent codes during the nineteenth century in twenty-four countries; the province of Québec and the state of Louisiana have derived a substantial portion of their laws from it. Napoléon also promulgated four other codes: the Code of Civil Procedure (1807), the Commercial Code (1808), the Code of Criminal Procedure (1811), and the Penal Code (1811).

Napoleonic Code

the name given to the French Civil Code. It brought together existing rules and implemented many of the new ideas of revolution. The provisions are brief and require judicial interpretation according to its spirit. Its structure is based on its civilian heritage and very broadly follows Justinian's Institutes (see CORPUS JURIS CIVILIS). The influence of the Code came from its implementation across Napoleon's sphere of influence including parts of Italy and Germany. The Code was a successful export, especially to the Americas. Its influence was weakened only when the German Civil Code (BGB) began to be copied by newer systems.
References in periodicals archive ?
Le Code de procedure civile etablit les principes de la justice civile et regit, avec le Code civil et en harmonie avec la Charte des droits et libertes de la personne (chapitre C-12) et les principes generaux du droit, la procedure applicable aux modes prives de prevention et de regiement des differends lorsque celle-ci n'est pas autrement fixee par les parties, la procedure applicable devant les tribunaux de l'ordre judiciaire de meme que la procedure d'execution des jugements et de vente du bien d'autrui (148).
c) Le Code civil du Quebec : Les contrats--Puisqu'il s'agit d'une entente de service aupres d'une entreprise privee, la vente directe de tests genetiques est egalement regie par les dispositions generales du Code civil du Quebec en matiere de contrats.
section] 22-7 Code Civil of 1998: Automatic Acquisition of Citizenship for Second Generation Migrants
L'adoption n'a d'ailleurs que tardivement ete integree dans les dispositions du Code civil du Que bee sur la filiation (53).
72) At the same time, a bill entitled visant a inscrire la notion de prejudice ecologique dans le code civil (on how to introduce the notion of ecological damage into the Code civil) is under discussion at the French Parliament.
La plupart des droits nationaux sont inspires par l'un ou l'autre des deux systemes adoptes respectivement au debut du XIXe siecle par le Code civil francais, qui favorise une approche conceptualiste, et, a l'aube du XXe siecle, par le Code civil allemand, qui presente une methode casuistique (29).
Le projet Catala, a son article 1340, en remplacement de la clausula generalis formulee a l'article 1382 du Code civil francais, pose un jalon vers une reconnaissance de l'illiceite.
Au Quebec, la consecration de la fiducie a titre onereux resulte de la reforme du Code civil (15).
Nous soumettons que la propriete fiduciaire est possible d'un point de vue theorique en droit civil (A) et que cette possibilite theorique, qui trouvait certainement un echo dans la fiducie du Code civil du Bas-Canada, trouve desormais une illustration pratique dans le droit positif francais (B).
Le fiduciaire est donc evoque dans le Code civil francais de maniere unitaire et, a premiere vue, il constitue un element-cle du mecanisme de fiducie : sur les vingt-et-un articles relatifs a la fiducie qui figurent dans le Livre III du Code civil, deux tiers concernent le fiduciaire et un tiers le fiduciaire exclusivement.
Code civil du Quebec annote, 15e edition 2012, tomes 1 et 2, Montreal, Wilson & Lafleur, 2012.
Des conditions de validite tenant aux parties a l'arbitrage sont normalement fixees par le code civil, par le code de statut personnel, auxquels renvoie parfois au code de commerce qui est aussi applicable.