combination

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Combination

In Criminal Law, an agreement between two or more people to act jointly for an unlawful purpose; a conspiracy. In patent law, the joining together of several separate inventions to produce a new invention.

An illegal combination in restraint of trade, defined under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, is one in which the conspirators agree expressly or impliedly to use devices such as price-fixing agreements to eliminate competition in a certain locality, e.g., when a group of furniture manufacturers refuse to deliver goods to stores that sell their goods for under a certain price.

In patent law a combination is distinguishable from an aggregation in that it is a joint operation of elements that produces a new result as opposed to a mere grouping together of old elements. This is important in determining whether or not something is patentable, since no valid patent can extend to an aggregation.

combination

noun affiliation, aggregate, amalgamation, arrangement, assemblage, bringing tooether, coadjutorship, coalescence, coalition, collection, composition, compound, coniunctio, congregation, conjunction, consolidation, fusion, incorporation, junction, merger, pool, societas, unification, union
Associated concepts: combination in restraint of trade, combination to restrict competition and commerce, combination trademark, combined offense, combined property, illegal combination, patentable combination
See also: accession, affiliation, alliance, assemblage, association, band, cabal, cartel, centralization, coalescence, coalition, collection, compact, company, compilation, composition, concert, confederacy, connection, consolidation, consortium, conspiracy, contact, content, contribution, corporation, enterprise, federation, incorporation, integration, joinder, league, melange, merger, organization, partnership, pool, relationship, selection, sodality, solution, structure, substance, union, unity

COMBINATION. A union of different things. A patent may be taken out for a new combination of existing machinery, or machines. See 2 Mason, 112; and Composition of matter.
     2. By combination is understood, in a bad sense, a union of men for the purpose of violating the law.

References in classic literature ?
One of the boys had a bottle filled with a combination of whiskey and blackberry wine, and the three sat with legs dan- gling out of the car door drinking from the bottle.
The federal Constitution forms a happy combination in this respect; the great and aggregate interests being referred to the national, the local and particular to the State legislatures.
The advance of industry, whose involuntary promoter is the bourgeoisie, replaces the isolation of the labourers, due to competition, by their revolutionary combination, due to association.
I was forced to fall back upon the unsatisfactory conclusion, that while, beyond doubt, there are combinations of very simple natural objects which have the power of thus affecting us, still the analysis of this power lies among considerations beyond our depth.
Doubtless, there is something magnetic or electric in some of these combinations of occult forces which work for physical life in strange way, and in himself were from the first some great qualities.
Another reproduced the most singular combinations with a spinning-top; in his hands the revolving tops seemed to be animated with a life of their own in their interminable whirling; they ran over pipe-stems, the edges of sabres, wires and even hairs stretched across the stage; they turned around on the edges of large glasses, crossed bamboo ladders, dispersed into all the corners, and produced strange musical effects by the combination of their various pitches of tone.
There are not more than five musical notes, yet the combinations of these five give rise to more melodies than can ever be heard.
Five minutes afterward the officer entered and the duke seemed to be immersed in the sublime combinations of chess.
In several works descriptive of the islands in the Pacific, many of the most beautiful combinations of vocal sounds have been altogether lost to the ear of the reader by an over-attention to the ordinary rules of spelling.
Looking now, narrowly, through the cipher for combinations of known characters, we find, not very far from the beginning, this arrangement, 83(88, or egree, which, plainly, is the conclusion of the word 'degree,' and gives us another letter, d, represented by †.
But I -- I, who in appearance marred your combinations, it was I who really made them succeed.
The government of the United States began to view with a wary eye the growing influence thus acquired by combinations of foreigners, over the aboriginal tribes inhabiting its territories, and endeavored to counteract it.