A series of studies have successfully established conditioned reinforcers
as a function of observation, including initially nonpreferred stimuli, such as plastic discs (Greer & Singer-Dudek, 2008), metal washers (Zrinzo & Greer, 2013), adult vocal approvals or praise (Greer, Singer-Dudek, Longano, & Zrinzo, 2008), books (Singer-Dudek, Oblak, & Greer, 2011), and small pieces of string (Singer-Dudek, Greer, & Schmelzkopf, 2008; Singer-Dudek & Oblak, 2013).
study, the conditioned reinforcer
associated with the optimal alternative predicted reinforcement 75 % of the time, whereas the conditioned reinforcer
associated with the suboptimal alternative predicted reinforcement 100 % of the time.
Prior to the conditioning intervention we tested, print stimuli were not conditioned reinforcers
for observing responses for the participants in the present study and they had experienced extreme difficulty in acquiring visual discriminations from direct instruction.
The generality of nicotine as a reinforcer enhancer in rats: effects on responding maintained by primary and conditioned reinforcers
and resistance to extinction.
Differential effects of nucleus accumbens core, shell, or dorsal striatal inactivations on the persistence, reacquisition, or reinstatement of responding for a drug-paired conditioned reinforcer
D] for the child's response in taking items from the table, which is also a reliable indication that your nods and smiles will function as a conditioned reinforcer
for any behavior in the child that produce your nods and smiles as consequences.
This leaves the peer as the possible conditioned reinforcer
in the pairing process, if the source of the effect is indeed attributable to a kind of vicarious Pavlovian pairing or stimulus contingency relation.
First, because ITI duration had no effect on the indifference points for the pigeons, I proposed that only time spent in the presence of conditioned reinforcers
associated with the food (the red and green key lights and houselights) should be treated as the delay to food, not the durations of the ITIs.
Therefore, a stimulus associated with a VI 10 s schedule should have more value as a conditioned reinforcer
than a stimulus associated with a VI 20 s schedule.
This effect suggests exteroceptive stimuli presented during delay interval may function as conditioned reinforcers
, blocking stimuli, or both.
A conditioned reinforcer
maintained by temporal association with the termination of shock.
The parameter is the ratio of average times spent, per reinforcer, in the initial and terminal links, which adjusts for the differential effectiveness of terminal-link stimuli as conditioned reinforcers
based on initial-link duration.