This special kind of conditioned reinforcer
acquires its function by being paired with a wide variety of events which have already f unctioned as reinforcers (Lamarre & Holland, 1985; Skinner, 1953, for example).
In other words, the participants had not acquired tokens as conditioned reinforcers
as a function of observation of their peers receiving and exchanging tokens.
The newly conditioned reinforcers
for observing responses constituted acquisition of a developmental cusp.
Reinforcement conditioning procedures for replacing stereotypy and enlarging students' reinforcement communities for books, toys, puzzles, games, television as conditioned reinforcers
for observing and selection.
Others attribute the acquisition of conditioned reinforcers
to stimulus-stimulus pairings, in which the reinforcing stimuli are not response dependent or discriminative stimuli (Gollub, 1970).
D] for the child's response in taking items from the table, which is also a reliable indication that your nods and smiles will function as a conditioned reinforcer
for any behavior in the child that produce your nods and smiles as consequences.
Specifically, they prefer choices that 50 % of the time result in a strong conditioned reinforcer
(followed by reinforcement 100 % of the time) and 50 % of the time result in a strong conditioned inhibitor (never followed by reinforcement) over those that result in weak conditioned reinforcers
(each followed by reinforcement 50 % of the time).
First, because ITI duration had no effect on the indifference points for the pigeons, I proposed that only time spent in the presence of conditioned reinforcers
associated with the food (the red and green key lights and houselights) should be treated as the delay to food, not the durations of the ITIs.
As we mentioned above, the most frequently described CMO-T is one that increases the value of a conditioned reinforcer
and is "often a stimulus that makes some object or event necessary to complete a behavior chain for a reinforcer, causing the missing object to increase in value" (Olson et al.
Therefore, a stimulus associated with a VI 10 s schedule should have more value as a conditioned reinforcer
than a stimulus associated with a VI 20 s schedule.
However, the vast majority of reports concerning conditioned reinforcement in drug self-administration studies with rats have conceptualized the conditioned reinforcer
as a Pavlovian CS.
For example, if seeing a restaurant functions as a conditioned reinforcer
, it is concluded that there is an EO that established the value of food as a reinforcer.