thus provides incentives to the 'ethnic leaders to escalate both the stakes and means of conflict' (Roeder et al: 2005, 56).
8) Corporate consociationalism
, however, is still evident to some extent in political practice: for example, Bosnia and Herzegovina, under the original Dayton Accords, Northern Ireland under the 1998 Agreement, Lebanon under the National Pact and under the 1989 Ta'if Accord, Cyprus under the 1960 constitution and proposed (but rejected) Annan Plan display features of pre-determined arrangements based on ascriptive identities.
In 1943, the Lebanese National Covenant (Al-Methak Al-Watany) established corporate consociationalism
as the de jure power sharing arrangement between the various confessions within the state.
In a consociational constitutional order, when a segmental interest (like the South) begins to lose--or perceives it is losing--its veto power over matters trenching upon its vital interests, it is pointless to blame it for either the substance of its interests (inquiries into that are bracketed; if they consider it important, constitutionally speaking, it is), or for its decision to exit the political order altogether (which, so far as consociationalism
is concerned, is a "right" in the value-free sense that it can be done).
The South African approach of mandating consociationalism
in the first stage while not enshrining it in the second stage, allowing the freely elected assembly to move instead to constitutional protection of minorities, has been particularly successful in this regard.
The LPF was invited to join a coalition with the CDA and VVD, the only option consistent with the Dutch tradition of consociationalism
and polder politics.
Rania Maktabi argues that Maronites' strategic manipulation of Lebanon's political system over the past few decades has undermined democractic consociationalism
to assure their dominance (pp.
In fact, however, the kind of partnership achieved by Baldwin and Lafontaine would have been thoroughly acceptable to Durham, though it may be doubted that he would have been comfortable with the notion of consociationalism
, at least insofar as it tended to encourage the continuation of "race" and what we now call elite accommodation.
The conceptual similarity between corporatism and consociationalism
is often overlooked, however, or it is deliberately ignored by proponents of consociationalism
because corporatism is a controversial idea.
The different models associated with them (such as multiculturalism, interculturalism, the melting pot, hyphenation, republicanism, assimilationism, consociationalism
is a form of government guaranteed group representation often employed for managing conflict in deeply divided societies, such as the pluralistic societies of Lebanon or Iraq.
autonomy aspects of consociationalism
, Lijphart's vision of