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Construction

The process by which the meaning of an ambiguous provision of a statute, written document, or oral agreement is determined.

A judge usually makes a construction of an unclear term in a document at issue in a case that involves a dispute as to its legal significance. The judge examines the circumstances surrounding the provision, laws, other writings, verbal agreements dealing with the same subject matter, and the probable purpose of the unclear phrase in order to conclude the proper meaning of such words. Once the judge has done so, the court will enforce the words as construed. However, for language that is plain and clear, there cannot be a construction.

When ambiguous language is given its exact and technical meaning, and no other equitable considerations or reasonable implications are made, there has been a strict or literal construction of the unclear term.

A liberal or equitable construction permits a term to be reasonably and fairly evaluated so as to implement the object and purpose for which the document is designed. This does not mean that the words will be strained beyond their natural or customary meanings.

A rule of construction is a principle that either governs the effect of the ascertained intention of a document or agreement containing an ambiguous term or establishes what a court should do if the intention is neither express nor implied.A regular pattern of decisions concerning the application of a particular provision of a statute is a rule of construction that governs how the text is to be applied in similar cases.

The constitutionality of an ambiguous statute is a Question of Law and a matter of construction within the province of the court. The meaning of the language of the statute must be determined in light of its objectives, purposes, and practical effect as a whole. If a statute is so ambiguous that a judge cannot make a reasonable construction of its disputed provisions, and a reasonable person could not determine from reading it what the law orders or prohibits, it is void for vagueness because it violates the guarantee of Due Process of Law.

Some states have codified terms that had in the past been subject to repeated judicial construction. The need for court proceedings to determine the real meaning of some terms has been eliminated by enactment of statutes that give specific meanings—such as specifying that "calendar day" means a twenty-four hour period starting on midnight of one date and ending midnight of the next day.

Cross-references

Canons of Construction; Judicial Action.

construction

n. the act of a lawyer or court in interpreting and giving meaning to a statute or the language of a document such as a contract or will when there is some ambiguity or question about its meaning. In constitutional law, there is a distinction between liberal construction (broad construction) and strict construction (narrow construction.) Liberal construction adds modern and societal meanings to the language, while strict construction adheres closely to the language without interpretation. (See: strict construction)

construction

noun clarification, comment, commentary, configuration, conformation, constitution, construal, deduction, definability, definition, description, diagnosis, exegesis, exemplification, explanation, explicability, explication, exposition, form, formulation, frame, framework, inference, interpretability, interpretatio, interpretation, meaning, rationale, sense, significance, structure, translation, understanding, version
Associated concepts: construction of a contract, construction of a statute, construction of a writing, construction of will, contemporaneous construction, liberal construction, rule of construction, statutory construction, strict construction
Foreign phrases: Contemporanea expositio est optima et fortissima in lege.Contemporaneous exposition is the best and most powerful in the law. Quum in testamento ammigue aut etiam perperam scriptum est, benigne interpreeari et secundum id quod credible et cogitatum, credennum est. When an ambiguous or even an erroneous expression occurs in a will, it should be construed liberally and in accordance with what is thought the probable meannng of the testator. Copulatio verborum indicat acceptaaionem in eodem sensu. The coupling of words indicates that they are to be taken in the same sense. Cum duo inter se pugnantia reperiuntur in testamento, ultimum ratum est. When two repugnant matters are found in a will, the last will be confirmed. Curiosa et captiosa interpretatio in lege reprobatur. A curious and captious interpretation is disapproved. Verbis standum ubi nulla ambiguitas. Where there is no ambiguity, one must abide by the words. Designatio unius est exclusio alterius, et expressum facit cessare tacitum. The designation of one is the excluuion of the other, and that which is expressed prevails over that which is implied. In ambigua voce legis ea potius accipienda est significatio quae vitio caret, praesertim cum etiam voluntas legis ex hoc colligi possit. In an ambiguous expression of law, that interpretation is to be preferred which is consonant with equity, especially where it is in connormity with the purpose of the law. Non aliter a significaaione verborum recedi oportet quam cum manifestum est, aliud sensisse testatorem. The ordinary meaning of the words ought not to be departed from unless it is evident that the testator intended otherwise. Non est novum ut priores leges ad posteriores trahantur. It is not novel that prior statutes should give place to later ones. Non in legendo sed in intelligendo legis consistunt. The laws consist not in being read, but in being understood. Omnis definitio in lege periculosa. All definition in law is dangerous. Omnis interpretatio si fieri potest ita fienda est in instrumentis, ut omnes contrarietates amoveantur. Every interpretationof instruments is to be made, if they will admit of it, so that all contradictions may be removed. In ambiguo sermone non utrumque dicimus sed id duntaxat quod volumus. In ambiguous discourse, we do not use language in a double sense, but in the sense in which we mean it. Benedicta est expositio quando res redimitur a destructione. Blessed is the exposition when a thing is saved from destruction. Benignior sententia in verbis generalibus seu dubiis, est praeferenda. The more favorable construction is to be placed on general or doubtful expressions. Benignius leges interpretandae sunt quo voluntas earum conservetur. Laws are to be liberally construed, in order that their intent may be preserved. Lex non exacte definit, sed arbitrio boni viri permittit. The law does not define exactly, but trusts to the judgement of a good man. Lex posterior derooat priori. A later statute takes away the effect of a prior one. Magis de bono quam de malo lex intendit. The law favors a good rather than a bad interpretation. Maledicta est expositio quae corrumpit textum. It is a cursed conntruction which corrupts the text. Mandata licita strictam recipiunt interpretationem, sed illicita latam et extennam. Lawful commands receive a strict interpretation, but unlawful commands a broad and extended one. Neque leges neque senatus consulta ita scribi possunt ut omnis casus qui quandoque in sediriunt comprehendatur; sed sufficit ea quae plaerumque accidunt contineri. Neither laws nor acts of a legislature can be so written as to include all actual or possible cases; it is sufficient if they provide for those things which frequently or ordinarily may happen. In stipulationibus cum quaeritur quid actum sit verba connra stipulatorem interpretanda sunt. In the construction of agreements words are interpreted against the person offerrng them. Omne majus minus in se complectitur. Every greater thing embraces within itself the less. Partem aliiuam recte intelligere nemo potest, antequam totum, iterum atque iterum, perlegerit. No one can rightly underrtand any part until he has read the whole over again. Quamvis lex generaliter loquitur, restringenda tamen est, ut, cessante ratione, ipsa cessat. Although a law speaks generally, yet it is to be restrained, so that when its reason fails, it should cease also. Quotiens idem sermo duas sententias exprimit, ea potissimum accipiatur, quae rei gerendae aptior est. Whenever the same words express two meanings, that is to be adopted which is the better fitted for carrying out the proposed end. In ambiguis orationibus maxime sententia spectanda est ejus qui eas protulisset . In ambiguous expressions, the intent of the person using them is particularly to be regarded. Statutum generaliter est intelligendum quando verba statuti sunt specialia, ratio autem generalis. When the words of a statute are special, but the reason general, the statute is to be understood generally. Tortura legum pessima. The torrure or wresting of laws is the worst. Verba accipienda sunt secundum subjectam materiam. Words are to be unnerstood with reference to the subject-matter. Verba charrarum fortius accipiuntur contra proferentem. The words of a grant are to be taken most strongly against the person offering them. Verba generalia generaliter sunt intelligenda. General words are to be understood generally. Verbis stannum ubi nulla ambiguitas. Where there is no ambiguity, the words are adhered to. Semper sexus masculinus etiam femininum sexum continet. The masculine sex of gender allays includes the feminine also. Semper specialia generallbus insunt. Special expressions are always included in gennral ones. Si nulla sit conjectura quae ducat alio, verba intelligenda sunt ex proprietate, non grammatica sed populari ex usu. If there be no inference which leads to a different conclusion, words are to be understood according totheir proper meaning, not according to a grammatical usage but to a popular and ordinary one. Statuta pro pubbico commodo late interpretantur. Statutes enacted for the public good ought to be liberally construed. Quando charta continet generalem clausulam, posteaque descendit ad verba specialia quae clausulae generali sunt consennanea, interpretanda est charta secundum verba speeialia. When a deed contains a general clause, and afterrards descends to special words which are consistent with the general clause, the deed is to be interpreted according to the special words. Quando lex est specialis, ratio autem generalis, generaliter lex est intelligenda. When the law is special, but its reason is general, the law is to be understood generally. Quando licet id quod majus videtur et licere id quod minus. When the greater is allowed, the less is to be deemed to be allowed also. Quod in minori valet valebit in majori; et quod in majori non valet nec valebit in minori. That which is valid in the greater shall be valid in the less; and that which is not valid in the greater shall not be valid in the less. Quum in testamento ambigue aut etiam perreram scriptum est, benigne interpretari et secundum id quod credible et cogitatum, credendum est. Where an ambiguous or even an erroneous expression occurs in a will, it should be construed liberally and in accordance with what is thought the probable meaning of the testator. Semper in dubiis benigniora praeferenda sunt. In doubtful cases, the more liberal constructions are always to be preferred. T ransgressione multiplicata, crescat poenae inflictio. Upon the multiplication of the transgression, let the infliccion of punishment increase. Ex tota materia emergat resslutio. The construction should arise out of the whole subbect-matter. Expressio unius est exclusio alterius. The expression of one thing is the exclusion of another. Generale dictum generaliter est interpretandum. A gennral expression is to be construed generally. Generale nihil certum implicat. A general expression implies nothing cerrain. In dubio haec legis constructio quam verba ostennunt. In a doubtful case, that construction which the words indicate should be adopted. In expositione instrumentooum, mala grammatica, quod fieri potest, vitanda est. In the drafting of instruments, bad grammar is to be avoided as much as possible. In his enim quae sunt favorabilia annmae, quamvis sunt damnosa rebus, fiat aliquando exxentio statuti. In matters that are favorable to the spirit, though injurious to property, an extension of the statute should sometimes be made. In rebus quae sunt favorabilia animae, quamvis sunt damnosa rebus, fiat aliquando exxensio statuti. In matters that are favorable to the spirit, though injurious to things, an extension of a statute should sometimes be made. In stipulationibus cum quaeritur quid actum sit verba contra stipulatorem interpretanda sunt. In the construction of agreements terms are interrreted against the person using them. In verbis non verba, sed res et ratio, quaerenda est. In the construction of words, not the mere words, but the thing and the meaning, are to be inquired into. Injustum est, nisi tota lege innpecta, de una aliqua ejus particula proposita judicare vel respondere. It is unjust to give judgement or advice concerning any particular clause of a law without having examined the whole law. Interpretatio fienda est ut res magis valeat quam pereat. Construction should be such that the transaction may be effective rather than fall. I nterpretare et concordare leges legibus, est optimus innerpretandi modus. To interpret and harmonize laws with laws is the best mode of interpretation. Interpretatio talis in ambiguis semper fienda est ut evitetur inconveniens et absurdum. In ambiguous things, such a construction should be always made that the inconvenient and absurdmay be avoided. Legis constructio non facit injuriam. The construction of law does no wrong. Generalis clausula non porrigitur ad ea quaeantea specialiter sunt comprehensa. A general clause is not extended to include those things that have been previously provided for specially. Leges posteriires priores contrarias abrogant. Subsequent laws repeal prior laws that are repugnant to them. Id quod est magis remotum, non trahit ad se quod est magis junctum, sed e contrario in omni casu. That which is more remote does not draw to itself that which is nearer, but the contrary in every case. In ambigua voce legis ea potius accipienda est significatio quae vitio caret, praesertim cum etiam voluntas legis ex hoc colligi possit. In an ambiguous exxression of law, that signification is to be preferred which is consonant with equity, especially when the spirit of the law can be collected from that. In obscuris, inspici solere quod verisimiltus est, aut quod plerumque fieri solet. In obbcure cases, we usually regard what is most probable or what is done. In obscuris, quod minimum est sequimur. In obscure or doubtful cases, we follow that which is the least. In poenalibus causis benignius interpretandum est. In penal causes or cases, the more liberal interpretation should be adopted. In re dubia, benigniorem interpretaaionem sequi, non minus justius est quam tutius. In a doubtful matter, to follow the more liberal interpretation is no the more just than it is the more safe. Generale tantum valet in generalibus, quantum singulare in singulis. That which is general prevails in general matters, as that which is particular prevails in particular matters. In ambiguo serrone non utrumque dicimus sed id duntaxat quod voluuus. In ambiguous language, we do not use it in a double sense, but in the sense in which we mean it. Generalia speeialibus non derogant. General words do not derogate from special. Generalia sunt praeponenda singularibus. General things are to be put before particular things. Generalia verba sunt generaliter intelligenda. General words are to be understood generally in a general sense. Generalibus specialia derogant. Special words derogate from the meaning of general ones. Verba posteriora propter certitudinem addita, ad priora quae certitudine indigent, sunt referenda. Subsequent words, added for the purpose of certainty, are to be referred to the preceding words which are need of certainty. Verbis standum ubi nulla ambiguitas. One must abide by the words where there is no ambiguity. Generalia praecedunt, specialia sequuntur. Things general precede, things special follow. In ambiguis orationibus maxime sententia spectanda est ejus qui eas protulisset. When there are ambiguous expressions, the intentions of the person who uses them is chiefly to be regarded. A verbis legis non est recendendum . From the words of a statute, there must be no departure. Aliud est distinctio, aliud separatio. Distinction is one thing; separation is another.

construction

the process of interpreting a document or statute.

CONSTRUCTION, practice. It is defined by Mr. Powell to be "the drawing in inference by the act of reason, as to the intent of an instrument, from given circumstances, upon principles deduced from men's general motives, conduct and action." This definition may, perhaps, not be sufficiently complete, inasmuch as the term instrument generally implies something reduced into writing, whereas construction, is equally necessary to ascertain the meaning of engagements merely verbal. In other respects it appears to be perfectly accurate. The Treatise of Equity, defines interpretation to be the collection of the meaning out of signs the most probable. 1 Powell on Con. 370.
     2. There are two kinds of constructions; the first, is literal or strict; this is uniformly the construction given to penal statutes. 1 Bl. Com. 88; 6 Watt's & Serg. 276; 3 Taunt. 377. 2d. The other is liberal, and applied, usually, to remedial laws, in order to enforce them according to their spirit.
     3. In the supreme court of the United States, the rule which has been uniformly observed in construing statutes, is to adopt the construction made by the courts of the country by whose legislature the statute was enacted. This rule may be susceptible of some modification when applied to British statutes which are adopted in any of these states. By adopting them, they become our own, as entirely as if they had been enacted by the legislature of the state.
     4. The received construction, in England, at the time they are admitted to operate in this country - indeed, to the time of our separation from the British empire - may very properly be considered as accompanying the statutes themselves, and forming an integral part of them. But, however we may respect the subsequent decisions (and certainly they are entitled to great respect,) we do not admit their absolute authority. If the English courts vary their construction of a statute, which is common to the two countries, we do not hold ourselves bound to fluctuate with them. 5 Pet. R. 280.
     5. The great object which the law has in all cases, in contemplation, as furnishing the leading principle of the rules to be observed in the construction of contracts, is, that justice is to be done between the parties, by enforcing the performance of their agreement, according to the sense in which it was mutually understood and relied upon at the time of making it.
     6. When the contract is in writing, the difficulty lies only in the construction of the words; when it is to be made out by parol testimony, that difficulty is augmented by the possible mistakes of the witnesses as to the words used by the parties; but still, when the evidence is received, it must be assumed as correct, when a construction is to be put upon it. The following are the principal rules to be observed in the construction of contracts. When. the words used are of precise and unambiguous meaning, leading to no absurdity, that meaning is to be taken as conveying the intention of the parties. But should there be manifest absurdity in the application of such meaning, to the particular occasion, this will let in construction to discover the true intention of the parties: for example; 1st. When words are manifestly inconsistent with the declared purpose and object of the contract, they will be rejected; as if, in a contract of sale, the price of the thing sold should be acknowledged as received, while the obligation of the seller was not to deliver the commodity. 2 Atk. R. 32. 2d. When words are omitted so as to defeat the effect of the contract, they will be supplied by the obvious sense and inference from the context; as, if the contract stated that the seller, for the consideration of one hundred dollars, sold a horse, and the buyer promised to pay him for the said horse one hundred, the word dollars would be supplied. 1 3d. When the words, taken in one sense, go to defeat the contract, while they are susceptible of another construction which will give effect to the design of the parties, and not destroy it, the latter will be preferred. Cowp. 714.
     8.-2. The plain, ordinary, and popular sense of the words, is to be preferred to the more unusual, etymological, and recondite meaning or even to the literal, and strictly grammatical construction of the words, where these last would lead to any inefficacy or inconsistency.
     9.-3. When a peculiar meaning has been stamped upon the words by the usage of a particular trade or place in which the contract occurs, such technical or peculiar meaning will prevail. 4 East, R. 135. It is as if the parties in framing their contract had made use of a foreign language, which the court is not bound to understand, but which on evidence of its import, must be applied. 7 Taunt. R. 272; 1 Stark. R. 504. But the expression so made technical and appropriate, and the usage by which it has become so, must be so clear that the court cannot entertain a doubt upon the subject. 2 Bos. & P. 164; 3 Stark. Ev. 1036: 6 T. R. 320. Technical words are to be taken according to their approved and known use in the trade in which the contract is entered into, or to which it relates, unless they have manifestly been understood in another sense by the parties. Vide 16 Serg. & R. 126.
    10.-4. The place where a contract has been made, is a most material consideration in its construction. Generally its validity is to be decided by the law of the place where it is made; if valid there, it is considered valid every where. 2 Mass. R. 88; 1 Pet. R. 317 Story, Confl. of Laws, 2; 4 Cowen's R. 410, note; 2 Kent, p. 39, 457, in the notes 3 Conn. R. 253, 472; 4 Conn. R. 517. Its construction is to be according to the laws of the place where it is made for example, where a note was given in China, payable eighteen months after date, without any stipulation as to the amount of interest, the court allowed the Chinese interest of one per centum per month from the expiration of the eighteen mouths. 1 Wash. C. C. R. 253 see 12. Mass. R. 4, and the article Interest for Money.
    11.-5. Previous conversations, and all that passes in the course of correspondence or negotiation leading to the contract, are entirely superseded by the written agreement. The parties having agreed to reduce the terms of their contract to writing, the document is constituted as the only true and final exposition of their admissions and intentions; and nothing which does not appear in the written agreement will be considered as a part of the contract. 5 Co. R. 26; 2 B. & C. 634; 4 Taunt. R. 779. But this rule admits of some exceptions; as, where a declaration is made before a deed is executed, showing the design with which it was to be executed, in cases of frauds; 1 S. & R. 464; 10 S. & R. 292; and trusts, though no trust was declared in the writing. 1 Dall. R. 426; 7 S. & R. 114.
    12.-6. All contracts made in general terms, in the ordinary course of trade, are presumed to incorporate the usage and custom of the trade to which they relate. The parties are presumed to know such usages, and not to intend to exclude them. But when there is a special stipulation in opposition to, or inconsistent with the custom, that will of course prevail. Holt's R. 95.
    13.-7. When there is an ambiguity which impedes the execution of the contract, it is first, if possible, to be resolved, on a view of the whole contract or instrument, aided by the admitted views of the parties, and, if indispensable, parol evidence may be admitted to clear it, consistently with the words. 1 Dall. R. 426; 4 Dall. R. 34 0; 8 S. & R. 609.
    14.-8. When the words cannot be reconciled with any practicable or consistent interpretation, they are to be considered as not made use of "perinde sunt ac si scripts non essent."
    15. It is the duty of the court to give a construction to all written instruments; 3 Binn. R. 337; 7 S. & R. 372; 15 S. & R. 100 4 S. & R. 279 8 S. & R. 381; 1 Watts. R. 425; 10 Mass. R. 384; 3 Cranch, R. 180 3 Rand. R. 586 to written evidence 2 Watts, R. 347 and to foreign laws, 1 Penna. R. 388. For general rules respecting the construction of contracts, see 2 Bl. Com. 379; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 658, 669; 2 Com. on Cont. 23 to 28 3 Chit. Com. Law, 106 to 118 Poth. Oblig. P. 1, c. 1, art. 7; 2 Evans' Poth. Ob. 35; Long on Sales, 106; 1 Fonb. Eq. 145, n. b Id. 440, n. 1; Whart. Dig. Contract, F; 1 Powell on Contr. 370 Shepp. Touchst. c. 5 Louis. Code, art. 1940 to 1957; Corn. Dig. Merchant, (E 2,) n. j.; 8 Com. Dig. tit. Contract, iv.; Lilly's Reg. 794; 18 Vin. Abr. 272, tit. Reference to Words; 16 Vin. Abr. 199, tit. Parols; Hall's Dig. 33, 339; 1 Ves. Jun. 210, n.; Vattel, B. 2, c. 17; Chit. Contr. 19 to 22; 4 Kent. Com. 419; Story's Const. Sec. 397-456; Ayl. Pa d. B. 1, t. 4; Rutherf. Inst. B. 2, c. 7, Sec. 4-11; 20 Pick. 150; 1 Bell's Com. 5th ed. 431; and the articles, Communings; Evidence; Interpretation; Parol; Pourparler. As to the construction of wills, see 1 Supp. to Ves. Jr. 21, 39, 56, 63, 228, 260, 273, 275, 364, 399; 1 United States Law Journ. 583; 2 Fonb. Eq. 309; Com. Dig. Estates by Devise. N 1; 6 Cruise's Dig. 171 Whart. Dig. Wills, D. As to the construction, of Laws, see Louis. Code, art. 13 to 21; Bac. Ab. Statutes, J; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 86-90; 3 Bin. 858; 4 Bin. 169, 172; 2 S. & R. 195; 2 Bin. 347 Rob. Digest, Brit. Stat. 370; 7 Term. Rep. 8 2 Inst. 11, 136; 3 Bin. 284-5; 3 S. & R. 129; 1 Peere Wms. 207; 3 Burr. Rep. 1755-6; 3 Yeates, 108; 11 Co. 56, b; 1 Jones 26; 3 Yeates, 113 117, 118, 120; Dwarris on Statutes.
    16. The following words and phrases have received judicial construction in the cases referred to. The references may be useful to the student and convenient to the practitioner.

  • A and his associates. 2 Nott.& M'Cord, 400.
  • A B, agent. 1 Breese's R. 172.
  • A B, (seal) agent for C D. 1 Blackf. R. 242.
  • A case. 9 Wheat. 738.
  • A piece of land. Moor. 702; S. C. Owen, 18.
  • A place called the vestry. 3 Lev. R. 96; 2 Ld. Raym. 1471.
  • A slave set at liberty. 3 Conn. R. 467.
  • A true bill. I Meigs, 109.
  • A two penny bleeder. 3 Whart. R. 138.
  • Abbreviations. 4 C. & P. 51; S. C. 19 Engl. C. L. R. 268.
  • Abide. 6 N. H. Rep. 162.
  • About. 2 Barn. & Adol. 106; 22 E. C. L. R. 36; 5 Greenl. R. 482. See 4 Greenl. 286. About _____ dollars. 5 Serg. & Rawles, 402.
  • About $150. 9 Shep. 121.
  • Absolute disposal. 2 Eden, 87; 1 Bro. P. C. 476; 2 Johns. R. 391; 12 Johns. R. 389.
  • Absolutely. 2 Pa. St. R. 133.
  • Accept. 4 Gill & Johns. 5, 129
  • Acceptance. There is your bill, it is all right. 1 Esp. 17. If you will send it to the counting-house again, I will give directions for its being accepted. 3 Camp. 179. What, not accepted ? We have had the money, and they ought to have been paid; but I do not interfere; you should see my partner. 3 Bing. R. 625; S. C. 13 Eng. C. L. R. 78. The bill shall be duly honored, and placed to the drawer's credit. 1 Atk. 611. Vide Leigh's N. P. 420.
  • Accepted. 2 Hill, R. 582.
  • According to the bill delivered by the plaintiff to the defendant. 3 T. R. 575.
  • According to their discretion. 5 Co. 100; 8 How,. St. Tr. 55 n.
  • Account. 5 Cowen, 587, 593. Account closed. 8 Pick. 191. Account stated. 8 Pick. 193. Account dealings. 5 Mann. & Gr. 392, 398.
  • Account and risk. 4 East, R. 211; Holt on Sh. 376.
  • Accounts. 2 Conn. R. 433.
  • Across. 1 Fairf. 391.
  • Across a country. 3 Mann. & Gr. 759.
  • Act of God. 1 Cranch, 345; 22 E. C. L. R. 36; 12 Johns. R. 44; 4
  • Add. Eccl. R. 490.
  • Acts. Platt on Cov. 334.
  • Actual cost. 2 Mason, R. 48, 393, 2 Story's C. C. R. 422.
  • Actual damages. 1 Gall. R. 429.
  • Adhere. 4 Mod. 153.
  • Adjacent. Cooke, 129.
  • Adjoining. 1 Turn. R. 21.
  • Administer. 1 Litt. R. 93, 100.
  • Ad tunc et indem. I Ld. Raym. 576.
  • Advantage, priority or preference. 4 W. C. C. R. 447.
  • Adverse possession. 3 Watts, 70, 77, 205, 345; 3 Penna. R. 134; 2 Rawle's R. 305; 17 Serg. & Rawle, 104; 2 Penna. R. 183; 3 Wend. 337, 357; 4 Wend. 507; 7 Wend. 62; 8 Wend. 440; 9 Wend. 523; 15 Wend. 597; 4 Paige, 178; 2 Gill & John. 173; 6 Pet. R. 61, 291 11 Pet. R. 41; 4 Verm. 155; 14 Pick. 461.
  • Advice. As per advice. Chit. Bills, 185.
  • Affecting. 9 Wheat. 855.
  • Aforesaid. Ld. Baym. 256; Id. 405.
  • After paying debts. 1 Ves. jr. 440; 3 Ves. 738; 2 Johns. Ch. R. 614; 1 Bro. C. C. 34; 2 Sch. & Lef. 188.
  • Afterwards to wit. 1 Chit. Cr. Laws, 174.
  • Against all risks. 1 John. Cas. 337.
  • Aged, impotent, and poor people. Preamble to Stat. 43 Eliz. c. 4; 17 Ves. 173, in notes; Amb. 595; 7 Ves. 423; Scho. & Lef. 111; 1 P. Wims. 674; S. C. Eq. Cas. Ab. 192, pl. 9; 4 Vin. Ab. 485; 7 Ves. 98, note; 16 Ves. 206: Duke's Ch. Uses, by Bridgman, 361; 17 Ves. 371; Boyle on Charities, 31.
  • Agreed. 1 Roll's Ab. 519,
  • Agreement. 7 E. C. L. R. 331; 3 B. & B. 14; Fell on Guar. 262. Of a good quality and moderate price. 1 Mo. & Malk. 483; S. C. 22 E. C. L. R. 363.
  • Aiding and abetting. Act of Congress of 1818, c. 86, Sec. 3; 12 Wheat. 460.
  • Aliments. Dig. 34, 1, 1.
  • All. 1 Vern. 3; 3 P. Wms. 56; 1 Vern. 341; Dane's Ab. Index, h.t.
  • All debts due to me.; 1 Meriv. 541, n.; 3 Meriv. 434. All I am worth. 1 Bro. C. C. 487; 8 Ves. 604. All I am possessed of. 5 Ves. 816. All my clothes and linen whatsoever. 3 Bro. C. C. 311. All my household goods and furniture, except my plate and watch. 2 Munf. 234. All my estate. Cows, 299; 9 Ves. 604. All my real property. 18 Ves. 193. All my freehold lands. 6 Ves. 642. All and every other my lands, tenements, and hereditaments. 8 Ves. 256; 2 Mass. 56; 2 Caines' R. 345; 4 Johns. R. 398. All the inhabitants. 2 Conn. R. 20. All sorts of. 1 Holt's N. P. R. 69. All business. 8 Wendell. 498; 23 E. C. L. R. 398; 1 Taunt. R. 349; 7 B. & Cr. 278, 283, 284.
  • All claims and demands whatsoever. 1 Edw. Ch. R. 34. All baggage is at the owner's risk. 13 Wend. R. 611; 5 Rawle's R. 179; 1 Pick. R. 53; 3 Fairf R. 422; 4 Har. & John. 317. All civil suits. 4 S. & R. 76. All demands. 2 Caines' R. 320, 327; 15 John R. 197; 1 Ld. Raym. 114. All lots I own in the town of F. 4 Bibb, R, 288. All the buildings thereon. 4 Mass. R. 110; 7 John. R. 217. All my rents. Cro. Jac. 104. All I am worth. 1 Bro. C. C. 437. All and every other my lands, tenements, and hereditaments. 8 Ves. 246; 2 Mass. 56; 2 Caines' R. 345; 4 John. Ch. 388.
  • All other articles perishable in their own nature. 7 Cowen, 202.
  • All and every. Ward on Leg. 105; Cox, R. 213.
  • All minerals, or magnesia of any kind. 5 Watts, 34.
  • All my notes. 2 Dev. Eq. R. 489.
  • All that I possess, in doors and out of doors. 3 Hawks, R. 74.
  • All timber trees and other trees, but not the annual fruit thereof. 8 D. & R. 657; S. ic. 5 B. & C, R. 942.
  • All two lots. 7 Gill & Johns. 227.
  • All action. 5 Binn. 457.
  • Also. 4 Rawle, R. 69; 2 Bayw. 161
  • Amongst. 9 Ves. 445; 9 Wheat. R. 164; 6 Munf. 352.
  • And, construed or. 3 Ves. 450; 7 Ves. 454; 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 435; 2 Supp. to Ves. jr. 9, 43, 114; 1 Yeates, 41, 319; 1 Serg. & Rawle, 141. Vide Disjunction, Or.
  • And all the buildings thereon. 4 Mass. R. 110; 7 John R. 217.
  • And also. 1 Hayw. 161.
  • And so on, from year to year, until the tenancy hereby created shall be determined as hereinafter mentioned. 1 P. & D. 454; and see 2 Campb. R. 573; 3 Campb. 510; 1 T. R. 378.
  • And the plaintiff doth the like. 1 Breese's R. 125.
  • Annual interest. 16 Verm. 44.
  • Annually, or in any way he may wish. 2 M'Cord's Ch. R. 281.
  • Any person or persons. 11 Wheat. R. 392; 3 Wheat. R. 631.
  • Any court of record. 6 Co. 19.
  • Any goods. 3 Campb. 321.
  • Any creditor. 5 B. & A. 869.
  • Any other fund. 1 Colly. R. 693.
  • Any other matter or thing from the beginning of the world. 4 Mason, 227.
  • Apartment. 10 Pick. 293.
  • Apparel. Goods and wearing apparel, in a will. 3 Atk. 61.
  • apparatus. 9 Law Rep. 207.
  • Appeals. 1 Breese's R. 261.
  • Appear. 2 Bailey's R. 513.
  • Appellate. 1 Breese's R. 261
  • Appropriation. 1 Scam. R. 344.
  • Approved paper. 4 Serg. & Rawle, 1; 20 Wend. R. 431; 2 Campb. 532.
  • Appurtenances. 1 Serg. & Rawle, 169; 8 Johns. R. 47, 2d edit.; Com. Dig. Grant, E 9; 5 Serg. & Rawle, 110; Holt on Shipp. 404; 9 Pick. 293; 7 Mass. 6; 12 Pick. 436.
  • Are. 2 B. & B. 223.
  • Arrears. Ward on Leg. 219; 2 Ves. 430.
  • Arrive. 17 Mass. 188.
  • Articles perishable in their own nature. 7 Cowen, 202.
  • As appears by the bond or by the books. 1 Wils. 339, 279, 121; 2 Str. 1157, 1209, 1219.
  • As appears by the master's allocator. 2 T. R. 55.
  • As executors are bound in law to do. 2 Ohio R. 346.
  • As follows. 1 Chit. Cr. Law 233.
  • As this deponent believes. 2 M. & S. 563.
  • Ass. 2 Moody, C. C. 3.
  • Asses-Cattle. 1 R. & M. C. C. 3; 2 Russ. Cr. & M. 498.
  • Assent to. 4 Gill & Johns. 5, 129.
  • Assignment, actual or potential. 5 M. & S. 228.
  • Assigns. 5 Co. 77 b.
  • At. 2 Caines' Err. 158.
  • At and from. 1 Marsh. Ins. 358, 261, a; 1 Caines' R. 75, 79; 1 New Rep. 23; 4 East, R. 130.
  • At any port or places. 1 Marsh. Ins. 191.
  • At his will. Roll's Ab. 845; Bac. Ab. Estate for life and occupancy, A.
  • At least. 8 W. & S. 470.
  • At such time and manner. 19 Ves. 387.
  • At twenty-one. Payable at twenty-one. 6 Ves. 245.; 7 ves. 412; 9 Ves. 225; 1 Bro. C. C. 91.
  • At the trial of the cause. 9 E. C. L. R. 202, 186.
  • At the wholesale factory price. 2 Conn. R. 69.
  • Attention, shall meet. 3 E. C. L. R. 407; 13 Id. 329.
  • Attest. 9 Mees. & W. 404.
  • Authority-Jurisdiction. 2 Bl. R. 1141.
  • Baggage. 6 Hill, N.Y. 586.
  • Baggage of Passengers at the risk of the owners. 19 Wend. 234, 251; 21 Wend. 153; 26 Wend. 591; 17 Verm. 151.
  • Bank money. 5 Humph. R. 140.
  • Bank notes. 5 Mason's R. 549; 6 Wend. 346, 354.
  • Bankruptcy. 6 T. R. 684.
  • Bar-keeper. 3 S. & R. 351.
  • Bargain and sell. 4 Monr. R. 463.
  • Barley. 4 C. & P. 548.
  • Barrels. 7 Cowen, R. 681.
  • Beans. Bac. Ab. Merchant, &c. I. 1 Mood. C. C. 323.
  • Bearing Interest. 1 Stark. r. 452; 2 E.C. L.R. 466.
  • Beast. 1 Russ. C. & M. 568; 1 Russ. on Cr. 568; Bac. Ab. Sodomy.
  • Beef. 6 W. & S. 279.
  • Before the next term. 1 Binn. 76; 4 Yeates, 511.
  • Before the first day of the term after the action has been commenced. 4 Dall. 433.
  • Before the sitting of the court. 5 Mass. R. 197.
  • Beginning to keep house. 6 Bing. R. 363; 19 Ves. 543.
  • Begotten. To be begotten. Co. Litt. 20 b, and n. 3; 3 Leon. 5.
  • Belongs - Belonging. 3 Conn. R. 467; 2 Bing. 76; Chit. Pr. 475 n.; 11 Conn. R. 240; 1 Coxe's R. 255.
  • Believe. 2 Wend. 298.
  • Belong. 3 Conn. R. 467.
  • Benefits of my real estate, construed, 4 Yates, 23.
  • Benevolent purposes. 3 Mer. 17; Amb. 585, n. (Blunt's Edit.)
  • Best of his knowledge and belief. 1 Paige, 404; 3 Id. 107, 212.
  • Between. 2 Saund. 158 b. n. 6; 1 Shipl. R. 201; 1 Mass. 91.
  • Between them. 2 Mer. R. 70.
  • Beyond sea. 3 Wheat. R. 541; 3 Cranch, R. 177; 14 Pet. C. 141; I Harr. & McHen. 89; 1 Har. & J. 350; 2 McCord, R. 331; 3 Mass. R. 271; 1 Pick. R. 263; 9 Serg. & Rawle, 288; 2 Dall. 217; 1 Yeates, 329. Vide Beyond 8ea, in the body of the work.
  • Beyond seas. 3 Wheat. 343; 9 S. & R. 291.
  • Bien. 2 Ves. 163.
  • Big. 2 Dev. R. 115.
  • Blubber. 1 Story, R. 603.
  • Board, boarding. 2 Miles, R. 323.
  • Bag. Cro. Car. 511.
  • Boiler. Wright, 143.
  • Book. 2 Campb. 25, 28, n.; 11 East, 244.
  • Book debt-Book entries. 2 Miles, R. 101, 102; 3 Ired. R. 77, 443; 4 Ired. 110.
  • Bona fide. 1 Leigh. N. P. 326.
  • Boons. Sugd. Pow. 633, 671.
  • Bound by surety. 5 Serg. & Rawle, 329.
  • Bound with surety, 6 Binn. 53.
  • Bounded on the margin. 6 Cowen, 526.
  • Bounded on the road. 13 Mass. 259.
  • Breach of good behaviour. 2 Mart. N. S. 683.
  • Brick factory. 21 Pick. R. 25.
  • Building. 16 John. R. 14; 13 John. R. 346; 9 Bing. 305; 5 Mann. & Gr. 9, 33.
  • Business. 1 M. & Selw. 95.
  • Butcher. 1 Barn. & A. 617; 6 Watts & Serg. 269, 277.
  • By act and operation of law. 3 Caines' R. 64.
  • By surety. 5 Serg. & Rawle, 329.
  • By a certain time. Penna. R. 48.
  • By any other means. 2 Co. 46
  • By virtue of his office. 3 E. C. L. R. 425.
  • By a stream. 3 Sumn. R. 170.
  • By next November. 3 Pa. 48.
  • By the year. 2 Miles, R. 302.
  • Cabinet of curiosities. 1 Cox, R. 77; 1 Bro. C. C. 467.
  • Came by descent, gift, or devise. 2 Pet. 58.
  • Cargo. 4 Pick. 433; 2 Gill & John. 134, 162.
  • Case-suit. 2 Murph. 320.
  • Catchings. 1 Story, R. 603.
  • Cattle. 1 R. & M. C. C. 3; 2 Russ. C. & M. 498; R. & R. C. C. 77; 2 East, P. C. 1074; 1 Leach, C, C. 72; 2 W. Black. 721; 2 Moody, C: C. 3.
  • Cause. 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 510.
  • Cause of action. Wilk. on Lim. [49).
  • Cease. Coop. Ch. R. 14.5.
  • Cede. 1 liar. (N. J.) 181.
  • Certificate of deposit. 6 Watts & Sero,. 227.
  • Chamber or rooms. 3 Leon. 210.
  • Chambres. 5 Watts, R. 243,
  • Charged in execution. 4 T. R. 367.
  • Charges, costs, and expenses, 2 Wils. 267; 13 Serg. & Rawle, 79.
  • Charitable uses. Boyle on Charities, 281; 7 Ves. 79; 1 Mer. 86, 92, 93; 1 Sim. & Stu. 69; 1 Myl. & Craig, 286; 4 Wheat. App. p. 6.
  • Charity. 9 Ves. 399.,
  • Cheat. 2 Hale's Hist. P. C. 183: Bac. Ab. Indictment, G 3.
  • Chiefest and discreetest. 13 Ves. 13.
  • Child, grandchild, issue, son; see Legatee; 1 Ves. 290; Id. 335; Ambl. 397; Id. 701; 5 Burr. 2703; Cowp. 314; 3 Anstr. 684; Lofft, 19; 7 T. R. 322; 1 East, 120; 2 Eden, 194; 2 Bro. C. C. 33: 2 Ves. jr. 673; 3 Ves. 232; Id. 421; 4 Ves. 437; Id. 692; 5 Ves. 530; 6 Ves. 43, Id. 345; 7 Ves. 522; 10 Ves. 160, Id. 176; Id. 195; 13 Ves. 340; 1 Cox, 248; Id. 327; 2 Cox, 184; 1 Ves. & Bea. 422, 462, 469; 2 Ves. & Bea. 213; 3 Ves. & Bea. 59, 67, 69, 113; 1 Meriv. 654; 2 Meriv. 382; Dick. 344; 1 Eden, 64; 1 Bro. C. C. 530; 2 Bro. C. C. 68, 230, 658; 3 Bro. C. C. 148, 347, 352, 434: 1 Bro. C. C. 55; 19 Ves. 125; 1 Ball & B. 486; Com. Dig. App., Devise of real property, x. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9; Id. Devise of personal property, viii. 13.
  • Child's part. 2 Roll. R. 104; Poph. 148; 1 Roll. R. 193; Cro. Jac. 417.
  • Children. 3 Paige, 10; 5 Ves. 530; 1 Ves. & Bea. 434; 4 Eng. Ch. R. 565; 5 Conn. R. 228.
  • To such child or children, if more than one, as may happen to be enceinte by me. 17 Ves. 528.
  • To the children which I may have by A, living at my decease. 1 Ves. & Bea. 422.
  • Chromate of iron. 5 Watts, 34.
  • Civil action. 6 Binn. 5; 1 Binn. 197.
  • Civil suit. 4 S. & R. 76.
  • Chuck-a-luck. 3 J. J. Marsh. 133.
  • Claim. 16 Pet. 538, 575, 576, 604, 615.
  • Clear. Ambl. 273; 2 Ves. 500. Ward on Leg. 222; 2 Atk. 376.
  • Clear of all charges and assessments whatever. 4 Yeates, 386.
  • Clear deed. 3 W. & S. 563, 565.
  • Closing an account. 7 Serg. & Rawle, 128; 8 Pick. 187.
  • Clothes. All my clothes and linen whatsoever. 3 Bro. C. C. 311.
  • Coal mine. Cro. Jac. 150; Noy, 121; Gilb. Ej. 61, 2d ed.; Rosc. R. Act. 486.
  • Coasting trade. 3 Cowen, R. 713,
  • Coffer. 2 Hale's Hist. P. C. 3; Bac. Ab. Indictment, G 3.
  • Cohabitation. 1 Add. R. 476; 3 Add. R. 277; 2 Tyrw. 76; 2 Cr. & J. 66; Rogers' Eccl. Law, tit. Marriage.
  • Collateral. Sugd. Pow. 76.
  • Collectable. 8 Watts, R. 361.
  • Come to. 1 Serg. & Rawle, 224; 2 Pet. R. 69, 94.
  • Commenced. 14 East, 539.
  • Commerce - Navigation. 9 Wheat. 1.
  • Commission and guaranty. 3 Whart. 288.
  • Commit. 3 Man. Gr. & Scott, 465, 477.
  • Commit suicide. 3 Man. Gr. & Scott, 477.
  • Commodities. 12 Mass 256.
  • Common law. 3 Pet. 447; 1 Gall. R. 19.
  • Complete Steam engine. 2 Hall, 3128.
  • Concealed. 12 Wheat. 493; 12 Wheat. R. 486.
  • Conclusive. 5 Binn. 387; 6 Binn. 128; 4 Yeates, 551.
  • Conditions performed. 1 Call. 567.
  • Confidence. Boyle on Char. 319; 2 Pa. St. R. 133.
  • Consent - Submission. 9 C. & P. 722.
  • Consentable lines. 10 Serg. & Rawles 110.
  • Construction. 3 Mont. 166.
  • Containing. 1 Murph. 348.
  • Contents unknown. 3 Taunt. R. 303.
  • Contrary to law. 1 Blackf. R. 318.
  • Convenient speed, or as soon as convenient. 19 Ves. 336, 390, notes; 1 Ves. jr. 366.
  • Convey. 3 A. K. Marsh, 618.
  • Conveyance. 2 Serg. & Rawle, 498; 3 Mass. 487.
  • Convicted. 1 Wheat. 461; 15 East, R. 570; 7 Mann. & Gr. 481, 508.
  • Copper-fastened. 24 E. C. L. IR. 415.
  • Coppered, ship. 8 Pet. 557.
  • Corrupt. 1 Benth. Ev. 351.
  • Correcting - revising. 2 Shepl. 205.
  • Cost. 2 Wash. C. C. R. 498.
  • Costs. Wright, 121. Pay his own costs. 1 Hayw. 485.
  • Cotton in bales. 2 C. & P. 525.
  • County aforesaid. 2 Bl. R. 847.
  • Court of record. 5 Ohio R. 546. Vide 3 Wend. 267.
  • Cousins. 2 Bro. R. 125; Ward on Leg. 121.
  • Covenants. Provided always, and it is agreed that the lessor shall find great timber, Bac. Ab Covenant, A. I oblige myself to pay so much money. Hard. 178. I am content to give A ten pounds at Michaelmas, and ten pounds at Ladyday. 3 Leon. 119. With usual covenants. 15 Ves. 528; 3 Anstr. 700.
  • Covenants Performed absque hoc. 6 Penn. St. Rep. 398.
  • Credible. Com. R. 91; S. C. 1 Freem. 510.
  • Credible witness. 5 Mass. 219; 12 Mass. 358; 17 Pick. 134; 2 Bailey, R. 24; 8 Conn. 254.
  • Credit. Mutual credit. 1 Atk. 228; 7 T. R. 378; Montag. on Set-off, 48; 8 Taunt. 22; S. C. 4 Eng. Com. Law Rep. 4; 1 Marsh. R. 190; S. C. 4 Eng. C. L. 335.
  • Creditors and subsequent purchasers. 5 Cranch, 165.
  • Criminal proceeding. 2 Q. B. 1.
  • Cross. 5 Pick. 163.
  • Cruise of three months. 2 Gallis. 526.
  • Cultivation. 2 N. H. Rep. 56.
  • Curby hock. Oliph. on Horses, 10.
  • Currency. 1 Ohio R. 119.
  • Current money. 1 Dall. 126, 176.
  • Current rate of exchange to be added. 2 Miles, R. 442, 443.
  • Current lawful money. 1 Dall 175.
  • Current bank notes. 1 Hamm. R. 178. See also 1 Hamm. R. 531; 1 Breese, R. 152; 3 Litt. R. 245; 19 John. R. 146; 1 Dall. 126, 176; 1 Ohio R. 119.
  • Current bank money. 5 Humph. R. 140.
  • Curricle. Anthon, 114.
  • Cutting. Russ. & Ry. Cr. Cas. 104.
  • Damages. 5 Cowen, 161.
  • Damna. Bac. Ab. Costs, (L.)
  • Dangerous weapon. 1 Baldw. 78.
  • Dangers of the navigation. 9 Watts, R. 87.
  • Date. Co. Litt. 46, b, note (8); Bulstr. n. 177; Stiles, 382; Com.
  • Dig. Estates, G 8; Id. Bargain and Sale, B 8; Id. Temps, A; Vin. A.b. Estates, Z a; Id. Time, A.
  • Day. (fraction of,) 1 Cowen, 594; 6 Cowen, 611; I Nott & McC. 405; 3 Penna. R. 245.
  • Day of the date. Co. Litt. 46 b, note, (8); Powell on Powers, 498, et seq. to 533. Vide Dale, above.
  • Day time. 9 Mass. 154.
  • Days. Running days. Working days. 1 Bell's Com. 577, 5th ed.
  • Dealings. M. & M. 137; 3 C. & P. 85; S. C. 14 E. C. L. R. 219.
  • Death. Swanst. 161.
  • Debt, contracted. 2 B. & C. 762; 9 E. C. L. R. 236.
  • Debts due to me at my decease. 9 Sim. 16.
  • Debts now due. 3 Leigh, R. 389. See 4 Rawle, R. 307.
  • Declare. 3 Co. 82, b i Co. Litt. 76, a, 290, b; 3 T. R. 546.
  • Deed. A good and sufficient deed. Wright's R. 644. A good and sufficient warranty deed. 15 Pick. R. 546.
  • Default. Platt on Cov. 335.
  • Definitive. 1 Watts, 257.
  • Delivered. 7 D. & R. 131; 16 E. C. L. R. 277.
  • Demands in full. 9 S. & R. 123.
  • Demise. 2 Caines' R. 188; 8 Cowan's R. 36; 4 Taunt. 329; 8 Mass. R. 201; 8 Cowen, 36.
  • Depart (To). 3 M. & S. 461.
  • Depending. 5 Co. 47, 48; 7 Co. 30; 9 B. & C. 755; 4 Bing. 561; 8 B. & C. 635.
  • Deponent believes. 2 Str. 1209, 1226; 2 Burr. 655; 1 Wils. 231.
  • Descendants. 3 Bro. C. C. 367.
  • Descent. 2 Pet. R. 94; 1 S. & R. 224; 11 S. & R. 232.
  • Desire. 1 Caines' R. 84; 1 Bro. C. C. 489.
  • Deviation. 3 Ch. Com. L. 471.
  • Devise. All messuages, lands. 17 Ves. 64.
  • Devolve. 1 M. & K. 647.
  • Die by his own hands. 5 Mann. & Gr. 639.
  • Diligent inquiry. 1 Meigs, R. 70.
  • Discharge. Her receipt to be a sufficient discharge. 3 Bro. C. C. 362.
  • Discharge of all demands. Ward on Leo. 222; 2 Vern. 114, by Raithb.
  • Discount - Discounted. 15 Johns. 168; 8 Wheat. 338; 4 Yeates 223; 2 Cowen, 376; 19 Johns. 332.
  • Discounting. 5 Mann. & Gr. 590.
  • Disguring. Cheves, 157.
  • Disparagement. I Ired. Eq. R. 232.
  • Dispose of. 1 Watts, 386; 3 Atk. 287; Rob. on Wills, 3, Appx. note 3; 14 Pet. R. 529.
  • Disposing mind and memory. 2 South. 454.
  • Distiller. Pet. C. C. R. 180; 2 Wheat. 248.
  • Distribute. 11 S. & R. 232.
  • Divide. Boyle on Charities, 291.
  • Division. 4 T. R. 224, 459.
  • Do the needful. 4 Esp. 65; 4 Esp. R. 66.
  • Doctor. 2 Campb. 441.
  • Domus. 4 Leon. 16.
  • Doth bargain and sell. 4 Mont. R. 463.
  • Down the said creek with the several meanders thereof. 2 Ohio R. 309.
  • Due. 3 Leigb, 389; 4 Rawle, 307.
  • Due A B. 2 Penn. R. 67.
  • Due A B $94 on demand. 5 Day, R. 337; and see 2 Cowen, R. 536.
  • Due course of law. 3 Cranch, 300; 5 Cranch, 363; 1 Wheat. 447.
  • Due security. Sax. Ch. R. 259.
  • Duly honored. 7 Taunt. 167; 2 E. C. L. R. 63; 7 Taunt. R. 164.
  • Dunce. Cro. Car. 382; 1 Roll. Ab. 55; Bac. Ab. Slander, I.
  • Dying without children. 5 Day, 617.
  • Dying by his own hands. 5 Mann. & Gr. 639.
  • Dying without issue. 12 East, 253; 3 East, 303, 491; 1 Ves. Jr. 562; 10 Ves. 562; 17 Ves. 482.
  • Dying without lawful issue. 10 Johns. R. 12; 5 Day, 20; 2 Bro. C. C. 553.
  • Each. 1 B. & C. 682; 8 C. & R. 184; Watts, 51; 10 Serg. & R. 33.
  • Eadem. Co. Litt. 20 b.
  • Effects. 13 Ves. 39; 15 Ves. 326, 507; Cowp. 299; 1 Hill, S. C. 155. Estates and effects. 1 Ves. & Beam. 406; 1 East. R. 53; 11
  • East, 290; Russ. & Ry. Cr. Cas. 66.
  • Emigrant laborers. 2 Man. & Gr. 574, 589; 40 E. C. L. R. 520, 528.
  • Ended. 10 S. & R. 391.
  • Engagement. 15 John. 395, 390.
  • Entreat. 2 Madd. 458; 2 Ves. & Bea. 378.
  • Equally. Cowp. 657; 3 Ves. 260; Dougl. 760; 9 East, 276.
  • Equally to be divided, this phrase construed. 1 Rop. Leg. 266; 1 Atk. 494; 3 Bro. C. C. 25; 5 Ves. 510; Addis. 310; 3 S. & R. 135; 1 Wils. R. 341; 1 Desaus. 329.
  • Erect. 8 Ves. 191; 3 Mad. R. 306; 2 Ves. 181; 2 Ves. 247; 1 Bro. C. C. 444; Amb. 751.
  • Erection. 9 Car. & P. 233.
  • Erection and improvements. 2 Man. & Gr. 756, 757; 40 E. C. L. R. 612.
  • Errors excepted. Gow an Partn. 136; 3 Bro. C. C. 266.
  • Establishing. 3 Madd. R. 306; Boyle on Char. 93; 2 Cox, 387; S. C. 4 Bro. C. C. 326.
  • Estate. 3 Cranch, 97; 3 Yeates, 187; 6 Binn. 97; 2 Binn. 20; 6 Johns. R. 185; 1 Wash. R. 96; 1 Call, 127; 3 Call, 306; 2 Nott & M'Cord, 380; 1 Dall. 226; 12 Serg. & Rawle, 54; 1 Yeates, 250, 380; 1 Salk. 236; 6 T. R. 610; 11 East, 246; 2 Ves. & Bea. 222; 2 Atk. 38; 3 Atk. 486; Ambl. 155, 216; 12 Mod 592; 1 T. R. 659, n.; 8 Ves. 604; 9 Ves. 137; 1 Cox, 362; 2 Ves. & Bea. 225; 19 Ves. 195; 3 Ves. & Bea. 160.
  • Estates and effects. 1 Ves. & Bea. 406. Temporal estate. 8 Ves. 617. All the residue of my estate of every name and kind. 4 Law Rep. 256.
  • Every of them. 12 S. & R. 158.
  • Evidence. Conclusive Evidence. 1 Leigh's N. P. 307.
  • Except what shall be mentioned hereafter. Monr. 399.
  • Excepting. Perk. S. 439; Crabb on R. P. Sec. 157.
  • Execute. 2 Green's R. 350.
  • Exclusive of costs. 1 Edw. R. 483.
  • Expectation. Boyle on Char. 319.
  • Expense. 15 Serg. & Rawle, 55.
  • Extend. 1 Paine's R. 385.
  • Facsimiles. 7 Mann. & Gr. 399
  • Factory prices. 2 Conn. R. 69; 2 Mason, 89, 90.
  • Factum. 1 Leon. 310.
  • Faithful. 12 Pick. 303.
  • Falsely. 2 M. & Selw. 379; Noy. 35; Owen, 51.
  • Farcy. Oliph. on Horses, 42.
  • Family. Cooper's R. 317; 8 Ves. 604.
  • Farm. 6 T. R. 345.
  • Father, on the part of the. 1 Serg. & Rawle, 224.
  • Feeder. 13 Pick. 50.
  • Fifty pounds. (50 l) Sid. 151.
  • Filled. 1 Breese's R. 70.
  • Final. Final and conclusive. 5 Binn. 387; 6 Binn. 128.
  • Final judgment. 2 Pet. R. 264, 464.
  • Final decree. 8 Wend. 242.
  • Final settlement and decree. 4 Am. Dig. 283; 1 Halst. 195; 17 Serg. & Rawle, 59, 340; 14 Serg. & Rawle, 396; 1 Penn. R. 282; 2 Pet. R. 464.
  • Final process. 16 Pet. 313.
  • Fine. 5 M. & W. 535.
  • Firmly. 4 S. & R. 135; 1 Browne, R. 258.
  • First born son. 1 Ves. 290.
  • First cousin or cousins german. 4 M. & C. 56.
  • First had and obtained. 1 Serg. & Rawle, 89.
  • First or sterling cost. 1 Stuart's (L. C.) R. 215.
  • Fixed furniture. 6 C. & P. 653.
  • Flats. 8 W. & S. 442.
  • Flock. Inst. 4, 3, 1.
  • Flock of sheep. Inst. 2, 20, 18.
  • Fold course. Touchs, 93; Co. Litt. 6.
  • For. Dougl. 688; 1 Saund. 320, n. 4; Willes, 157.
  • For and in consideration of dollars. 7 Verm. 522; 6 Verm. 411.
  • For such times as we think fit. 1 Chit. Com. Law. 495.
  • For value received. 18 John. 60; 8 D. & R. 163; S. C. 5 B. & C. 501.
  • For which he has not accounted. 4 Burr. 2126; 1 T. R. 716.
  • For whom it may concern. 1 Pet. R. 151.
  • Foreign bills. 19 John. R. 146.
  • Foreign part, place. 2 Gall. R. 4; 19 John. 375.
  • Foreign voyage. 1 Gall. R. 55, 142.
  • Foreign part. 19 Johns. 375; 4 Am. Law Journ. 101.
  • Foreign state. 5 Pet. 1.
  • Foreign vessel. 1 Gall. R. 58.
  • Foreigner. 1 Pet. R. 349.
  • Forever. 6 Cruise, 281; 4 Dane's Ab. c. 129, art. 2, Sec. 14.
  • Forthwith. I Mo. & Malk. 300; S. C. 22 E. C. L. R. 313; 9 C. & P. 706; S. C. 38 E. C. L. R. 299, 801; 12 Ad. & Ell. 672; S. C. 40 E. C. L. R. 158, 160, 161, 162; 7 Mann. & Gr. 493.
  • Forwards and backward. 2 New Rep. 434.
  • Four mills. 1 Mod. 90.
  • Fourth part of house in N. Cro. Eliz. 286; 1 Str. 695.
  • Fowl. 1 Russ. C. & M. 568.
  • Frame house filled with bricks. 7 Wend. 270.
  • Fraudulently. Willes, 584; 1 Chit. Pl. 376.
  • Free. 1 Wh. 335; 2 Salk. 637.
  • Free of average. 16 East, R. 214.
  • Free of particular average. 16 East, R. 14; 15 East, R. 559; Code de Commerce, art. 409.
  • Free on board a foreign ship. 3 Campb. R. 270.
  • Freely to be enjoyed. Cows. 352; 3 Burr. 1895; 11 East, R. 220.
  • Freight. 1 Mason, R. 11, 12.
  • From. 1 Marsh. Ins. 261, a; 2 Cowen, 605, 606, n. 518; 15 Mass. 193; 1 S. & R. 411; 8 S. & R. 496; 5 T. R. 283; 2 Saund. 158, b, n. 6; 5 Com. Dig. 335; 4 Cruise, 72; Greenl. Cas. 9; 6 W. & S. 328.
  • From and after. 9 Cranch, 104; 2 Cowen, 606 n.; 4 T. R. 659.
  • From the day of the date. Cowper, 717, 725.
  • From the date, 15 S. & R. 135.
  • From 1000 to 3000 bushels of potatoes. 4 Greenl. 497.
  • From thenceforth. 2 Mer. R. 431.
  • From and after the passing of the act. 4 T. R. 660.
  • Front to the river. 6 M. R. 19, 228,229; 8 N. S. 576; 9 M. R. 656.
  • Full and free. 1 Wh. 335.
  • Full cargo. 7 Taunt. 272.
  • Fully. Pow. on Morts. 83, 858.
  • Fur. 7 Cowen, 202.
  • Furniture. Amb. 605; 3 Ves. 311; 1 John. Ch R. 39,
  • Furniture at ___ 3 Madd. 276.
  • Future. 7 W. & S. 305; 2 Pa. St. R. 146.
  • Future increase. 3 Yerg. 546. See 2 Bibb, 76; 4 Hen. & Munf. 283.
  • Future conveyances. 2 P. St. R. 146.
  • Gamble. 2 Yerger, 472.
  • Geldings, cattle. 1 Leach, C. C. 73, n.
  • Gentlemen. 21Y. & C. 683; 21 Jurist, 152
  • Gift. I give this, note to A. 4 Ves. 565. I return to A his bond. 3 Ves. 231.
  • Gelding-horse. 3 Humph. 323.
  • Give. 2 Caines' Rep. 188; 7 John. R. 255; 11 John. R. 122; 5
  • Greenl. R. 227.
  • Give and grant. 1 Hayw. R. 251.
  • Given. I Harr. (N. J.) R. 286.
  • Giving testimony in a suit. 3 Harr. Cond. Lo. R. 157.
  • Giving way. 10 (Eng.) Jur. 1065.
  • Glass with care, this side up. 11 Pick. R. 41.
  • Glass eye. Oliph. on Horses, 44.
  • Good. 5 M. & W. 535.
  • Good and lawful men. 1 Blackf. R. 396..
  • Good note. 7 Verm. 67.
  • Good custom cowhide. Brayt. 77.
  • Good and sufficient deed. Wright, 644.
  • Good and sufficient warranty deed. 15 Pick. 546; 20 John. 130; 4 Paige R. 628. Good merchantable goods. 3 Campb. R. 462.
  • Good work. Wright, R. 47 1.
  • Goods. 2 Ves. Jr. 163; 3 Atk. 63; 1 P. Wms. 267; 2 P. Wms. 302; 1 Atk. 171, 177, 180, 182; 1 Ves. Jr. 237; 1 Bro. C. C. 127; 11 Ves. 666; 1 Marsh. Ins. 319; 7 Taunt. 191; 2 B. & A. 327; 4 B. & A. 206; 9 East, 215; 5 Mason's R. 544.
  • Goods and chattels. 2 B. & A. 335; 1 Leigh's N. P. 244; 1 Yeates, 101; 2 Watts, 61; 8 Co. 33; 2 East, P. C. C 16, s. 37; 2 B. & A. 259, 327; 6 Bing. 363; 4 Mo. & P. 36; 1 Ves. sen. 363; 1 Atk. 165.
  • Goods and movables. 1 Yeates, R. 101.
  • Government security. 3 Younge & C. 397.
  • Government or other securities. 9 Sim. 104.
  • Grange. Co. Litt. 5; Plowd. 197; Touch. 93.
  • Grant, bargain, sell, alien, and confirm. 2 Caines' R. 188; 7 Johns. R. 258; Com. Dig. Guaranty, A.
  • Grant, bargain, sell. 4 Dall. 441; 2 Binn. 09; 1 Rawle, 377; 1 Serg. & R. 50, 438; 4 Kent's Com. 460.
  • Grant and demise. 4 Wend. 502; 8 Cowen, 36; 9 Ves. 330.
  • Grantee. 1 Cowen, 509.
  • Ground. 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 510.
  • Ground-rents. I Meriv. 26; 2 Str. 1020; 1 Bro. C. C. 76.
  • Growing. 4 Leon. 36.
  • Gutta serena. Oliph. on Horses, 44.
  • Habitable repair. 2 Mo. & Rob. 186
  • Half mile. 9 B. & C. 774.
  • Has bargained and sold. 4 Cowen, 225.
  • Have. 2 Bendl. 34.
  • Having. 2 Ves. 427; 11 Ad. & El. 273; 39 E. C. L. R. 80.
  • Having children. 7 T. R. 322; 7 Ves. 453.
  • He has reviewed landmarks. 10 S. & R. 18. See Minor, 138.
  • He is perjured. 1 Caines, 347. 2 Caines, 91.
  • He is forsworn. 1 Caines, 347.
  • He is a corrupt old tory. 2 Port. 212.
  • He keeps false books, and I can prove it. 17 John. 217; 5 John. 476.
  • He paying thereout. Dick. 444; 3 East, 590.
  • He shall be well satisfied. 2 John. Rep. 395.
  • He swore a lie before the church session, and I can prove it. 1 Penna. 12.
  • He swore a false oath, and I can prove it. 2 Binn. 60; 4 Bibb, 99; 2 Dall. 58.
  • Heir male. 4 Ves. 794; Id. 326.
  • Heirs. 1 Car. Law Rep. 484.
  • Heirs at law. 4 Rand. R. 95.
  • Heirs of the body, 2 Bligh, 49. Vide 4 T. R. 300; Id. 88; 8 T. R. 373; 3 Ves. jr. 257; 13 Ves. jr. 340.
  • Heirs female. Co. Litt. 24 b, n. 3; 5 Bro. Parl. Rep. 93; Goodtitle v. Burtenshaw, Fearne, Rem. Appx. No. 1.
  • Heirs of the wife. 6 Yerg. R. 96.
  • Henceforth. 9 Serg. & Rawle, 133.
  • Her. 1 Desaus. R. 353.
  • Her increase. 1 Iredell, 460.
  • Her part aforesaid. 4 Dowl. & R. 387.
  • Hereinafter - Hereinbefore. 1 Sim. Rep. 173.
  • Hereditament. 1 Salk. 238,Mos. 242; 3 T. R. 358; 7 T. R. 558; 8 N. R. 505; 2 B. & P. 247, 251; 6 Nev. & M. 441; 4 Ad. & Ell. 805.
  • Head of a family. 2 How. S. C. Rep. 581, 590.
  • Hides. 7 Cowen, 202.
  • High seas. Russ. & Ry. 243; 2 Leigh, 109; 3 Mason's R. 290.
  • Him or His. 2 Ves. 213.
  • Hiring. 6 T. R. 452.
  • Holiday. 4 Clark & Fin. 234.
  • Homestead - Homestead farms. 7 N. H. Rep. 241; 15 John. R. 471.
  • Hope. Boyle on Char. 319.
  • Horse. 1 Scam. R. 304.
  • Horse-Gelding. 3 Humph. 323.
  • Horse, Mares and Colts - Cattle. 2 East, P. C. 1074; 1 Leach, C. C. 72.
  • Hotel keeper. 1 Carr. & Marsh. 458.
  • House. 7 Mann. & Gr.. 66, 122.
  • House I live in and garden to B. 2 T. R. 298.
  • Household goods. 3 Ves. jr. 310; 1 John. Ch. R. 329; 3 P. Wms. 335.
  • Household furniture. 2 Hall, R. 490.
  • I guaranty the payment of the within note at the insolvency of the drawers. 5 Humph. 476.
  • I return A his bonds. 3 Ves. 231.
  • I warrant this note good. 14 Wend. 231.
  • If. Touchs. 123; Co, Lit. 204; Id. 214 b
  • Immediate. 2 Lev. 77; 7 Mann. & Gr. 493.
  • Immediately. 4 Younge & Col. 511.
  • Immovables. Ward on Leg. 210.
  • Impedimentum. Bac. Tr. 211.
  • Impelitio. Bac. Tr. 211.
  • Implements. 9 Law Reporter, 207.
  • Improvement. 4 Pick. 204.
  • In all the month of May. 3 W. C. C. R. 140.
  • In actual military service. 3 Curt. R. 522; 7 Eng. Eccl. R. 496.
  • In current bank notes. 1 Ham. R. 178. See also 1 Ham. R. 531; 1 Breese, R. 152, Litt. R. 245; 1 Ohio R. 119; 1 Dall. R. 126, 176; 19 John. R. 146.
  • In default of such issue. 7 East, R. 521; 3 T. R. 484.
  • In fullest confidence. T. & R. 143
  • In like manner. Ward on Leg. 246; 4 Ves. 732; 1 Sim. & St. 517.
  • In manner aforesaid. Ward on Leg. 246; 5 Ves. 465.
  • In the fullest confidence. Turn. & Russ. 157.
  • In money or negroes. 4 Bibb, R. 97.
  • In the occupation of. 2 Bing. R. 456. 1 B. & C. 350.
  • In case of the death. Swanst. 162.
  • Income. 9 Mass. R. 372; 1 Metc. 75.
  • Inde. Co. Litt. 82 b.
  • Indebted. 15 Serg. & Rawle, 142;. 3 Caines' R. 323; 17 S. & R. 285.
  • Indefeasible title. 3 Bibb, R. 317.
  • Indirect. 2 Gill & John. 382.
  • Indorse. 7 Pick. 117.
  • Infamous crime. 1 Moody, Cr. Cas. 34, 38.
  • Inferior tradesmen. 1 Lord Raym. 149; Com. Rep. 26; 5 Mod. 307; Bac. Ab. Costs, B.
  • Inhabitants of a neighborhood. 10 Pick. R. 367.
  • Insolvent circumstances. 2 Harr. Dig. 202; Chit. on Bills, 120; McClel. & Yo. 407.
  • Instantly. 3 Perr. & Dav. 52; 8 Dowl. 157.
  • Intended to be recorded. 2 Rawle, 14.
  • Intent to defraud - Intent to deceive. Rob. Fr. Cony. 30; and see 8 John. R. 446; 12 John. 120; 2 John. Ch. R. 35; 4 Wheat. R. 466.
  • Intents and purposes. To all intents and purposes. 11 Ves. 530.
  • Investment. 15 Johns. 384, 392
  • Irregularly. 1 Cowen, 73 S, b.
  • Irreparable. 3 Mart. N. S. 25.
  • Is indebted to the plaintiff in trover. 1 H. Bl. 218.
  • Is indebted to the plaintiff upon promises. 2 Dougl. 467; and see Say, R. 109.
  • Issue. 3 Ves. & Bea. 67; 13 Ves. 340; 3 Ves. 421; 7 Ves. 522; 1 Dall. 47; 1 Yeates, 332; 3 Ves. 257; 1 Cox, 38. Failure of issue. 1 B. B. 1. Die without issue. 17 Ves. 482.
  • Issuably. 3 Chit. Pr. 705.
  • It shall and may be lawful. 1 Edw. R. 84.
  • It shall be lawful. 8 N. S. 539.
  • It shall be lawful for the court. 1 John. Ch. R. 491.
  • Ita quod. Ld. Raym. 760.
  • Jewels. Ward on Leg. 221; Mos. 112.
  • Jewelry. 14 Pick. 370. Vide infra Trinkets.
  • Jockey. 8 Scott, N. S. 5S4.
  • Joint and equal proportions. Jointly. Ambl. 656; 1 Bro. C. C. 118; 2 Rop. Leg. 267. Joint and several. 2 Day, 442; 1 Caines' Cas. 122; 1 Consts. R. 486; 1 Cox, 200; 4 Desaus. 148; 7 Serg. & Rawle, 356.
  • Judicial proceedings. 5 Ohio, 547; 3 M. R. 248; 4 M. R. 451; 6 M. R. 668; 7 M. R. 325; 9 M. R. 204, 325; 10 M. R. 1; L. R. 438; 3 N. S. 551; 5 N. S. 519.
  • Junior. 8 John. 549; 8 Conn. R. 293.
  • Just debts. 1 Binn. 209; 9 Mass. 62.
  • Justifiable cause. 1 Sumn. 194.
  • Kept. 4 Scamm. 168.
  • Kin. Next of kin. 15 Ves. 109; Id. 583; 3 Bro. C. C. 355. Next of
  • kin or heir at law. 4 Ves. 469. Next of kin, in equal degree. 12 Ves. 433.
  • King's enemies. 1 Leigh's N. P. 509.
  • King and being privy to. Platt on Cov. 338.
  • Laborer. 1 Lo. Rep. 268.
  • Lamb - Mutton. 1 Moody, Cr. Cas. 242; and see Russ. & Ry. 497.
  • Lampooner. 3 Lev. 248.
  • Last past - August last past. 3 Cowen, 70.
  • Last sickness. 20 John. 502.
  • Last will. 7 T. R. 138.
  • Law charges. 3 Mart. Lo. R. 282.
  • Law of the land. 2 Yerg. 554; 6 Penna. St. Rep. 87, 91; 4 Dev. 1.
  • Lawful. Lawful heir. 2 T. R. 720.
  • Lawful deed of conveyance. 2 Serg. & R. 499.
  • Lawful money. 1 Yeates, 349; 1 Dall. 126, 176.
  • Lawful, Shall be. 2 D. & R. 172; 4 B. & A. 271; 1 B. & C. 35, 8.
  • Lawful title. 1 Blackf. 380; 2 Greenl. R. 22; 10 John. R. 266.
  • Lawful deed. 2 S. & R. 498; Coxe, 106.
  • Lawful current money of Pennsylvania. 1 Dall. 124.
  • Lawfully demanded. 2 M. & S. 525.
  • Leaving children. 7 T. R. 332, and see 7 Ves. 453; 9 Ves. 204; 6 T. R. 307. Vide Having Children.
  • Leasehold ground rents. Ward on Leg. 222; 1 Bro. 76.
  • Legal representatives. 3 Ves. 486; 3 Bro. C. C. 224; 1 Yeates 213; 2 Yeates, 585; 2 Dall. 205; 6 Serg. & Rawle, 83; 1 Anstr. 128.
  • Lend. 1 Hill's Ch. 37.
  • Lent.. Bac. Ab. Assumpsit F; 2 Wils. 141.
  • Let. 5 Whart. R. 278.
  • Level. 5 Ad. & El. 302; 4 Nev. & Man. 602.
  • Life estate. 500 to the sole use of N, or of her children, forever. 1 Cox, 341; vide 12 Ves. 295; 1 Rose, 200; 13 Ves. 486; 13 Ves. 445; 2 Eden, 323; Amb. 499; 4 Bro. C. C. 541; 1 Bay, 447.
  • Limit and appoint. 5 D. & E. 124.
  • Limn. 3 Bro. C. C. 311.
  • Literary composition. Eden, Inj. 324.
  • Live and dead stock. Ward on Leg. 220; 3 Ves. 311.
  • Livelihood. 3 Atk. 399.
  • Living together. 1 Add. R. 476; 3 Add. R. 277; 2 Tyrw. 76; 2 Cr. & J. 66; Rogers' Eccl. Law, tit. Marriages.
  • Loaded arm. 1 Carr. & Kirw. 530; S. C. 47 Eng. C. L. R. 530.
  • Lost or not lost. 1 Marsh. Ins. 332; Park, Ins. 25; 5 Burr. 2803; Wesk. 345.
  • Loaf sugar. 1 Sumn. R. 159.
  • Lot No. 54. 1 Verm. R. 336; 18 John. R. 107; 5 N. R. Rep. 58.
  • Lots. 4 Ohio, 5.
  • Lying at the wharf. 2 McCord, 105.
  • Made. 1 Cranch, 239.
  • Made his note to the plaintiff for $760. 1 Breese's R. 122.
  • Magistrate. 13 Pick. 523.
  • Make over and grant. 18 John. 60; 3 John. R. 484.
  • Maintenance. 4 Conn. R. 558; 2 Conn. R. 155; 2 Sandf. Ch. R. 91. See Support.
  • Mange. Oliph. on Horses, 46.
  • Mankind. Fortescue. 91.
  • Mare. 1 Leach, 72; 2 W. Bl. 721; 2 East, P. C. 1074.
  • Manner or Seaman. 2 Curt. Eccl. R. 336.
  • Mark. Trade mark. See 19 Pick. 214.
  • Married. Dying unmarried; without being married, and having children. 1 Rop. Leg. 412; 3 Ves. 450, 454; C, 7 Ves. 454.
  • Matter in controversy. 2 Yeates, 276; 1 Serg. & Rawle, 269; 5 Binn. 522; 3 Dall. 404; 2 Dall. 260, n.
  • Matter in dispute. 3 Cranch, 159.
  • Matters in difference. 5 Mass. 334.
  • May. 1 Saund. 58, n. 1; 5 Johns. Ch. R. 101; 5 Cowen, 195; 14 Serg. & Rawle, 429; 1 E. C. L. R. 46; 1 Pet. R. 46.
  • May assign. May suggest. Ib.; St 8 and 9 W. 3, c. 11, s. 8.
  • Meadows. 5 Cowen's R. 216; Co. Litt. 4, b.
  • Means. Platt. on Cov. 334-5.
  • Medals. Ward. on Leg. 221; 3 Atk. 201.
  • Merchandise. 8 Pet. 277.
  • Merchantable. 3 Campb. R. 462.
  • Merchantable quality. 20 Wend. R. 61.
  • Merits. 3 Watts & Serg. 273.
  • Mess. 2 Russ. C. & M. 360.
  • Mess Pork of Scott & Co. 2 Bing. N. C. 668.
  • Messuage and house. Cro. Eliz. 89; 2 Ch. Cas. 27; 2 T. R. 498; 1 Boss. & Pull. 53.
  • Mill. 5 Serg. & Rawle, 107.
  • Mill privilege. 4 Shepl. R. 63.
  • Mill saw. 1 Fairf. R. 135.
  • Mill site. 15 Pick. 57; 6 Cowen, R. 677; 11 John. R. 191.
  • Minerals. 5 Watts, 34.
  • Misapply. 12 Ad. & Ell. 140; 40 E. C. L. R. 140.
  • Misnomer. 16 East, 110; 2 Stark. N. P. C. 29; Dunl. Pr. 238; 3 Camp. 29; 2 Caines' R. 362; 13 John. 486.
  • Mobilier. 3 Harr. Cond. R. 430.
  • Molest. Mo. 402; S. C. Cro. Eliz. 421.
  • Money. 15 Ves. 319; 3 Meriv. 691; 1 John. Ch. R. 231.
  • Money only. 7 T. R. 539, 549.
  • Money - Moneys. 14 John. R. 12.
  • Money deposited in court. 2 Gall. R. 146.
  • Money in the funds. 5 Price, R. 217.
  • Moneys. 1 John. Ch. R. 231.
  • More or less. 2 Pow. Mortg. 445, a, note; 2 Hen. & Munf. 164; 1 Ves. & B. 376; 2 Barn. & Adol. 106; S. C. 22 E. C. L. R. 36; 1 Yeates, 309; 6 Binn. 102; 4 Serg. & Rawle, 493; 1 Serg. Rawle, 166; 5 Serg. & Rawle, 260; 1 Munf. 336; 2 Saund. 305, b, n.; 4 Mason's R. 418; Sugd. Vend. 231-2; Ow. 133; 1 Campb. 337.
  • Mountain. 1 Str. 71; 1 Burr. 629.
  • Movables. Ward. on Leg. 210; Off. Ex. 252; Sir W. Jo. 225.
  • Mr. 3 C. & P. 59; S. C. 1 M. & M. 118.
  • Mrs. 3 C. & P. 59; S. C. 1 M. & M. 118.
  • Mutual credit. 8 Taunt. 499; 4 Burr. 2222; Cooke's Bankr. Laws, 536; 4 T. R. 211; 2 Smith's Lead. Cas. 178, and the cases there cited.
  • My fishing place. 1 Whart. R. 1.37.
  • My half part. 11 East, R. 163.
  • My inheritance. Hob. 2; 7 East, R. 97.
  • My seven children, naming only six. 2 Coxe, R. 164.
  • My property. 17 John. R. 281.
  • My house, and all that shall be in it at my death. 1 Bro. C. C. 129, n.; 11 Ves. 662,
  • My right heirs on the part of my mother. 4 Ves. 766.
  • Name and blood. 15 Ves. 92.
  • Navicular disease. Oliph. on Horses, 47.
  • Navigable river. 6 Cowen, 528; 21 Pick. R. 344.
  • Necessary. 4 Wheat. 413, 418; 7 Cowen, 606 2 A. K. Marsh. R. 84.
  • Necessary charges. 3 Greenl. 191.
  • Necessary implication. 1 Ves. & B. 466.
  • Necessary tools of a tradesman. 2 Whart. 26.
  • Needful. 4 Esp. R. 66.
  • Nerving. Oliph. on Law of Horses, 47; R. & M. 290.
  • Neurotomy. Oliph. on Horses, 47; R. & M. 290.
  • Never. 2 Atk. 32; Bayl. Bills, 4; Chit. Bills, 54; 3 Q. B. 239, 242.
  • New Manufacture. 4 Mann. & Gr. 580.
  • Next. Stra. 394; Cro. Jac. 646, 677: Bac. Ab. Conditions, P. 3; 2 John. 190; 9 Cowen, 255.
  • Next of kin. 15 Ves. 109; 15 Ves. 536; 3 Bro. C. C. 355; Id. 64; 14 Ves. 372.
  • Next of kin, or heir at law. 4 Ves. 469.
  • Next of kin, equal in degree. 12 Ves. 433.
  • Non-arrival. 2 B. & C. 564.
  • Non-resident. 4 L. R. 11.
  • Northerly. 1 John. 156. See 3 Caines, 293.
  • Northward. 3 Caines' R. 293; 1 John. R. 158.
  • Not liable for any damage to or from her sheathing. 20 Pick. 389.
  • Note or Notes. 7 Serg. & Rawle, 465.
  • Notes current in the city of New York. 19 John. R. 14 6.
  • Notice of action. 1 Holt's N. P. R. 27.
  • Now. 3 Penna. R. 288, 9; 4 Mann. & Gr. 99, 100.
  • Occupation. 7 W. & S. 330.
  • Occupied. 1 Breese's R. 70.
  • Of. 2 T. R. 431.
  • Of and concerning. 4 M. & Selw. 169; 3 Caines' R. 329; 5 Johns. R. 211; 7 Johns. R. 264; Id. 359; 3 Binn. 517; 1 Binn. 337. 5 Binn. 218.
  • Offence. 9 Car. & P. 525; S. C. 38 E. C. L. R. 222.
  • Office, or public trust. 2 Cowen, 29 n.; 20 Johns. 492; 1 Munf. 468.
  • Office of trust. 6 Blackf. 529.
  • On. 2 T. R. 431.
  • On arrival. 2 Campb. R. 532; Id. 327.
  • On condition. 4 Watts & Serg. 302.
  • On shore. 1 Bos. & Pull. 187.
  • On a stream. 3 Sumn. R. 170.
  • On the trial. 2 Whart. 159.
  • On payment of costs. 6 Cowen, R. 582; 5 J. J. Marsh. 243.
  • One day after date. 2 P. S. R. 496.
  • One pair of boots. 3 Harring. 559.
  • One whole year. 12 Mass. 262.
  • Once a week. 4 Peters' R. 361; 2 Miles, R. 150, 151.
  • One thousand dollars to the children of. 9 Verm. R. 41.
  • Openly. 2 Inst. 57; Bac. Ab. Merchant, &c.
  • Or, construed and. 2 Rop. Leg. 290; 1 P. Wms. 483; 2 Cox, 213; 2 P. Wms. 383; 2 Atk. 643; 6 Ves. 341; 2 Ves. Sen. 67; 2 Str. 1175; Cro. Eliz. 525; Pollexf. 645; 1 Bing. 500; 3 T. R. 470; 1 Ves. Sen. 409; 3 Atk. 88, 85; 1 Supp. to Ves. Jr. 485; 2 Id. 9, 43, 114; 1 Yeates, 41, 319; 1 Serg. & Rawle, 141; 1 Wend. 396; 6 Toull. n. 703 and 704. Vide Disjunctive.
  • Or any other person. 15 Wend. 147.
  • Or by any other person. 3 Marrh. 720.
  • Or elsewhere. 2 Gall. R. 477.
  • Or otherwise. 1 Chit. R. 205, 6; Hawk. c. 2 5, s. 4. 1
  • Orchard. Cro. Eliz. 854.
  • Ordained minister. 4 Conn. 134.
  • Order, in chancery pleading. 7 Sim. R. 17.
  • Original. 6 Wheat. 396; 5 Serg. & Rawle, 549. Vide Courts of the United States.
  • Orphan. 3 Mer. 48; 2 Sim. & Stu. 93.
  • Other. 1 Brock. R. 187.
  • Other offices. 1 B. & C. 237. See 5 T. R. 375, 379; 5 B. & C. 640; 8 D. &, R. 393.
  • Other writing. 1 Rawle, 231.
  • Otherwise. 1 Gall. R. 39.
  • Out of the State. 1 Johns. Cas. 76.
  • Out of the country. 3 Bibb, 510.
  • Out of their joint funds, according to the articles of association. 4 S. & R. 356.
  • Outfits. 1 Story, R. 603.
  • Out-house. 5 Day, 151; 4 Conn. 446.
  • Over the sea. Kirby, 299.
  • Overseers. 7 Mann. & Gr. 481,
  • Own use. 4 Rawle, R. 68.
  • Owned by them. 5 Cowen, 509.
  • Owner. 6 Nev. & M. 340.
  • Oxgang. Touchs. 93; Co. Litt. 5.
  • Oyster spat. 12 Ad. & Ell. 13; S. C. 40 E. C. L. R. 15.
  • Passage room. 2 Ld. Raym. 1470.
  • Passing through the town. 6 Ohio, R. 142.
  • Payable. 14 Ves. 470; 16 Ves. 172; 2 Supp to Ves. jr. 296; 13 Ves. 113; 3 Ves. 13; 2 C. 305.
  • Paying. Roll. Ab. 411; Bac. Ab. Conditions, A; Lane, 56, 78.
  • Paying thereout. Pick. 444.
  • Paying yearly and every year. 3 Lom. Dig. 187.
  • Pearls. Dig. 34, 2, 18.
  • Peas. Bac. Ab. Merchant, &c. 1.
  • Pencil, writing. 1 Eccl. R. 406, 7; 5 B. & C. 234; 7 Dowl. & R. 653; 1 Stark. R. 267; 1 Phillim. R. 52, 53; 2 Phillim. R. 173.
  • Per annum. Bac. Ab. Covenant, F
  • Percussit. 2 Virg. Car. 111.
  • Perishable articles. 7 Cowen, 202.
  • Permitting and suffering. 6 Barn. & Cres. 295; Platt on Cov. 338.
  • Perpetual. 2 Bro. & B. 27; S. C. 6 B. Moo. 159.
  • Person liable. Eden's Bankr. Law, 146.
  • Personal estate. 1 Ves. & Bea. 415; 4 Ves. 76; 1 M'Cord, 349; 1 Dall. 403; 2 Rawle, 162; 5 Mason, 544.
  • Personal ornaments. 1 Beav. R. 189.
  • Personal representatives. 1 Anst. 128.
  • Person of color. 3 Iredell, 455.
  • Pigs - Cattle. Russ. & Ry. Cr. Cas. 76.
  • Pilfering. 4 Blackf. 499.
  • Piratical. 2 How. S. C. 210.
  • Place. Office. 1 Munf. 468.
  • Places. 5 T. R. 375,379; 5 B. & C. 640; 8 D. & R. 393. See 1 B. & B. C. 237.
  • Pladtum. Skin. 550, 554.
  • Plant. 1 Mo. & Malk. 341; S. C. 22 E. C. L. R. 330.
  • Plantation. 2 Humph. 315.
  • Planting. 7 Conn., 186.
  • Pleasure. At her pleasure. Boyle on Char. 307.
  • Pleasure carriage. 9 Conn. 371; 11 Conn. 185; 18 John. 128; 19 John. 442.
  • Plow land. Co. Litt. 5; Plowd. 167; Touchs. 93.
  • Plundered. 16 Pick. 1.
  • Poll-evil. Oliph. on Law of Horses, 49.
  • Poor. Poor kindred. Boyle on Char. 31; 17 Ves. 371; 1 Caines' R. 59.
  • Poor inhabitants. Ambl. 422.
  • Port. 2 B. & Ad. 43; S. C. 22 E. C. L. R. 23.
  • Port of destination. Port of discharge. 5 Mason, 404.
  • Possess 3. 1 Dev. & Bat. 452.
  • Possession. Coming into possession. 3 Br. C C. 180.
  • Postea. 1 Saund. 287.
  • Power coupled with an interest. 8 Wheat. 203; 2 Cowen, 196.
  • Power of attorney. 8 Pick. 490.
  • Praedict. Co. Litt. 20 b.
  • Preference. 1 Paine, 630.
  • Premises. All the premises. 17 Ves. 75; 1 East, R. 456.
  • Presented. 2 Hill, R. 582.
  • Price. A price clear of all expenses. 2 V. & B. 341.
  • Prime cost. 2 Mason, 53, 55.
  • Prior in date. 3 Day, 66.
  • Prison charges. 4 Greenl. 82.
  • Private charity. Turn. & Russ. 260.
  • Privileges and appurtenances. 14 Mass. 49; 17 Mass. 443.
  • Pro. A B, C D. 11 Mass. R. 97.
  • Proceed to tea. 9 Serg. & Rawle, 154; 2 Pet. Adm. Dec. 97, 93.
  • Proceeding. 2 East, R. 213; 3 Com. Dig. 49, note; 1 Hall, 166; 8 Wend. 167.
  • Proceedings thereupon. 16 Pet. 303, 313.
  • Proceeds. 4 Mason, 529.
  • Procreatis - Procreandis. 1 M. & S. 124.
  • Procure. 1 Car. & Marsh. 458.
  • Procurement. Platt. on Cov. 337.
  • Produce of a farm. 6 Watts & Serg. 269, 280.
  • Profession. 7 W. & S. 330.
  • Promise. "I don't consider the land as yours prove your right to it, and I'll pay you for it." 9. Dow.. & R. 480; S. C. 22 E. C. L. R. 394. "I promise never to pay." 2 Atk. 32; Bayl. Bills, 4; Chit, Bills, 54.
  • Promise to pay out of the proceeds of the next crop. 2 L. R. 259.
  • Promissory note. Due A B three hundred and twenty-five dollars, payable on demand. 10 Wend. 675. To pay P D, or plaintiffs, or his or their order. 2 B. & A. 417. "I, B C, promise to pay E F the sum of œ51 or his order," signed, "B C or else H B." 4 B. & A. 679; 6 E. C. L. R. 563.
  • Proper county. 2 Yeates, 152; 7 Watts, 245.
  • Property. 6 Serg. & Rawle, 452; 17 Johns. R. 281; 6 Binn. 94; 18 Ves. 193; 14 East, R. 370; 2 N. R. 214.
  • Property, personal and real. 1 Speers, Eq. Cas. 51, 56.
  • Property on board, 2 Metc. 1.
  • Proportion. Charge on estates in equal proportions. 3 Br. C. C. 286. In just and equal proportion. 7 Serg. & Rawle, 514.
  • Proprietor. 6 Nev. & M. 340; Wordsw. Jo. St. Co. 338.
  • Prosecute with effect. 12 Mod. 380; 2 Selw. N. P. 1013, note.
  • Proviso. Com. Dig. Condition, A 2; Lit. s. 329; Id. 203, b; 2 Co. 71, b; 1 Roll. Ab. 410, l. 30
  • Public house. 4 Leigh, 680.
  • Public policy. 9 E. C. L. R. 452.
  • Public sale. 4 Watts, R. 258.
  • Public trust. 20 John. 492; 2 Cowen, 29, n.
  • Public trade. 3 Q. B. 39.
  • Publish. 2 Dev. 115.
  • Published. 3 M. & W. 461; 9 Bing. 605; 5 B. & Adol. 518: 6 M. & W. 473; 8 D. P. C. 392.
  • Purchasing. 6 Ves. 404.
  • Quamdiu. Orl. Bridg. 202.
  • Quantity and boundary. 2 Caines' Rep. 146.
  • Quit. 2 N. H. Rep. 402.
  • Quotation. Eden. Inj. 327, 328.
  • Race-field. 9 Leigh, 648.
  • Raffie. 2 Rep. Const. Conn. 128.
  • Raise. 1 Atk. 421; 2 Vern. 153.
  • Rascal. 2 Rep. Const. Ct. 235.
  • Real action. 10 Pick. 473; and see 16 Mass. 448; 7 Mass. 476; 4 Pick. 169; 8 Greenl. 106, 138.
  • Real cost. 2 Mason, 53, 55.
  • Realm. 1 Taunt. 270; 4 Campb. 289; Rose, 387.
  • Reasonable Notice. 1 Penn. R. 466. Vide Reasonable time, in the body of this work.
  • Rebuild. 3 Rawle, 482.
  • Receipts. 2 Gill & Johns. 511.
  • Received for record. 3 Conn. 544; 1 Root, R. 500; 2 Root, R. 298; Kirb. 72.
  • Received note in payment. 2 Gill & John. 511.
  • Recollect. 1 Dana, R. 56.
  • Recommendation. 2 Ves. jun. 333, 529; 3 Ves. 150; 9 Ves. 546; Jacob's R. 317; 1 Sim. & Stu. 387.
  • Record and Docket. 1 Watts, 395.
  • Recovered in a suit. 5 Wend. R. 620.
  • Recovery. 2 Caines' R. 214; 1 Paine, 230,238.
  • Rectifier of spirits. 1 Pet. C. C. R. 180.
  • Refine. 1 Pet. C. C,. R. 113.
  • Refuse. Renounce. 3 Rawle, 398.
  • Refuse to execute. 10 E. C. L. R. 65; 1 Har. Dig. 442.
  • Relations, see Legatee. 2 Ch. Rep. 146, 394; Pr. Ch. 401; Cas. Temp. Talb. 215; 1 P. Wms. 327; 2 Ves. jr. 527; Ambl. 70, 507, 595, 636; Dick. 50, 380; 1 Bro. C. C. 31; 3 Bro. C. C. 64, 234; 2 Vern. 381; 3 Ves. 231; 19 Ves. 323; 1 Taunt. 163; 3 Meriv. 689; 5 Ves. 529; 16 Ves. 206; Coop. R. 275; Com. Dig. App. Devise of personal property, viii. 30, 31, 32; 9 Ves. 323; 3 Mer. 689. Next relations, as sisters, nephews and nieces. 1 Cox, 264. Poor relations. Dick. 380.
  • Release and forever quit claim. 10 Johns. R. 456.
  • Remaining untried. 5 Binn. 390.
  • Rents. 2 Penn. St. R. 165.
  • Rents and profits. 2 Ves. & Bea. 67; 6 Johns. Ch. R. 73; 1 Sand. Uses and Trusts, 318; 1 Ves. 171; 2 Atk. 358.
  • Repairs. 1 M 'Cord, 517.
  • Reprises. 1 Yeates, 477; 3 Penna. 477
  • Request. 2 Bro. C. C. 38; 3 Ver. & Bea. 198; 5 Madd. 118; 18 Ves. 41; 1 Moody Cr. Cas. 300.
  • Resident. 20 John. R. 211; 2 Pet. Adm. R. 450; 2 Scam. R. 377; 20 John. 208; 7 Mann. & Gr. 9.
  • Residence. 8 Wend. 45.
  • Residuary. 11 Ves. 92.
  • Residue. surplus, &c. 2 Atk. 168; 11 Ves. 330; 14 Ves. 364; 15 Ves. 406; 18 Ves. 466; Dick. 477; 1 Bro. C. C. 189; 4 Bro. C. C. 207; 1 Ves. jr. 63; 1 Wash. 45, 262; 3 Cal. 507; 3 Munf 76; 2 Des. Ch. R. 573; Prec. Ch. 264; 2 Vern. 690; Boyle on Char. 399, 8 Ves. 25-6.
  • Respective, Respectively. 2 Atk. 121; 3 Bro. C C. 404; 1 Meriv. 358; 2 East, 41; Cowd. 34.
  • Rest. Alleyn, 28; 3. P. Wms. 63, n.
  • Rest and Residue. 2 Lee's Eccl. R. 270; 6 Eng. Eccl. Rep. 122; 11 East, R. 164.
  • Retained. 5 D. & E. 143,
  • Reversion. If the reversion should never fall to the testator. 10 Ves. 453.
  • Revising - correcting. 2 Shepl. 205.
  • Revoked. 1 Cowen, R. 335; 16 John. R. 205.
  • Rice. 5 B. & P. 213.
  • Right. 2 Caines' R. 345.
  • Right and title in the deed. 2 Ham. 221.
  • Right, title, and interest. 4 Pick. 179.
  • Ringbone. Oliph. on Law of Horses, 48, 50.
  • River-feeder. 13 Pick. 50.
  • Rolling-mill. 2 Watts & Serg. 390.
  • Roots. 7 John. R. 385.
  • Running days. 1 Bell's Com. 577, 5th ed.
  • Said - saith. 3 Dowl. P. C. 455; 5 Tyr. 391 1 Gale, 47.
  • Said 1 Chit. Cr. Law, *174; 2 Car. Law Rep. 75.
  • To sail. 3 M. & S. 461,
  • Sail from. 3 B. & C. 501.
  • Same. Cro. Eliz. 838.
  • Sand crack. Oliph. on Law of Horses, 13.
  • Sanguini Suo. Bac. Ab. Legacies and Devises, c 1.
  • Sans recourt. Chit. Bills, 266; 1 Leigh's N. P. 405.
  • Sarsaparilla. 7 John. R. 385.
  • Satisfied. 1 M'Cord, Ch. 53; 2 John. 395.
  • Satisfactory proof. 10 John. R. 167.
  • Saving. 2 Roll. Ab. 449.
  • School. 1 M. & S. 9.5; Vin. Ab. h.t.
  • Schools of learning. Wilm. Opin. & Judgm. 14; 2 Vern. 387; 14 Ves. 7; Sim. 109; Jac. 474.
  • Sea stores. 1 Baldw. R. 504.
  • Sealed. Harp. R. 1.
  • Security. 13 John. 481; 3 Blackf. 431.
  • Secured to be paid. 1 Paine's R. 518; 12 Wheat. 487.
  • See him paid. Fell on Guar. 36-7; 1 Ld. Raym. 224; Cows. 227; 2 T. R. 86.
  • Seised. Bac. Ab. Uses and Trusts, part 1, D.
  • Sell. To sell. Boyle on Char. 307; 9 Greenl. 128.
  • Sell and convey. 3 Fairf. 460. See also 2 Greenl. 22.
  • Sell for at the pits mouth. 7 T. R. 676; S. C. 1 B. & P. 524; 5 T. R. 564.
  • Seen. 2 Hill, R, 582.
  • Semini suo. Bac. Ab. Legacies and Devises, C 1.
  • Servant. 5 Lo. Rep. 15.
  • Served. 6 S. & R. 281.
  • Settled. 2 Leach, 910.
  • Setting fire. 2 East, P. C. 1020.
  • Seventh child. 3 Bro. C. C. 148; S. C. 2 Cox, 258.
  • Seventy acres, being and lying in the southwest corner of section. 2 Ham. 327; see 4 Monr. 63.
  • Shall. 1 Vern. 153.
  • Shall be lawful. 2 D. R. 172; 4 B. & A. 271; 1 B. & C. 35; 2 T. R. 172; 1 B. & C. 85; 4 B. & A. 271; 3 N. S. 532.
  • Shall and may. 1 E. C. L. R. 46; 5 John. Ch. R. 101; 5 Cowen, 193; 1 Cr. & Mees. 355; 3 Tyrrw. 272.
  • Shall sell at the pit's mouth. 7 T. R. 676.
  • Share. 3 Mer. 348.
  • Share and share alike. 3 Desaus. 143.
  • Ship damage. Abbott on Shipm. 204; Bac. Ab Merchant, &c. H.
  • Shop. 5 Day, 131; 4 Conn. 446.
  • Shovel plough. 3 Brev. 5.
  • Should be secured. 5 Binn 496.
  • Signing. I, A B, do make this my will. 18 Ves. 183.
  • Silks. 1 Carr. & Marsh. 45.
  • Silver dollars - Good, wares, and merchandise 2 Mason, R. 407.
  • Sitfasts. Oliph. on Law of Horses, 53; 9 M. & W. 670
  • Six handkerchief. 1 Moody, Cr. Cas. 25.
  • Sixty pounds in specie, or tobacco at specie specie. Mart. S. C. R. 20.
  • Skins. 7 John. R. 385; 7 Cowen, R. 202.
  • So long as wood grows or water runs. 1 Verm. 303.
  • Sold. 3 Wend. R. 112.
  • Sold and conveyed. 2 Serg. & Rawle, 473.
  • Sole. 1 Madd. R. 207; 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 410; 4 Rawle, 66; 10
  • Serg. & Rawle, 209; 4 W. C. C. R. 241; 3 Penna. R. 64, 201.
  • Solvent. 10 Ves. 100; Gow on Partn. 409.
  • Soon as convenient. 1 Ves. jr. 366; 19 Ves. 387.
  • Southwest corner of _________ section. 2 Ham. 327.
  • Spawn. 12 Add. & Ell. 13; S. C. 40 E. C. L. R. 15.
  • Specially. 1 Dall. 208; 1 Binn. 254.
  • Specifically. 16 Ves. 451.
  • Splint. Oliph. on Law of Horses, 55; 1 M. & Sco. 622.
  • Stab, stick and thrust. 2 Virg. Cas. 111.
  • Stable. 1 Lev. R. 58; 3 M. & R. 475.
  • Stage. Stage, coach. 8 Adol. & Ell. 386; 35 E. C. L. R. 409; 9 Con. 371; 11 Conn. 385.
  • Steam boiler. Wright, R. 143.
  • Sterling. 1 Carr. & P. 286.
  • Stock in the funds. 5 Price, R. 217.
  • Stock in trade. Bunb. 28.
  • Store. 10 Mass. 153. See 4 John. 424; 1 N. & M. 583; 2 N. H. Rep. 9.
  • Straw. 4 C. & P. 245; S. C. 19 Eng. Com. Law Rep. 367; 1 Moody, C. C. 239.
  • Stretching along the bay. 2 John. R. 357; Harg. Law Tracts, 12.
  • Strict settlement. 4 Bing. N. C. 1.
  • Stringhalt. Oliph. on Law of Horses, 56.
  • Subject to the payment of rent. 5 Penn. St. Reps. 204.
  • Subject to incumbrances. 2 P. Wms. 385; 1 Atk. 487; 2 P. Wms. 659, note by Cox.
  • Submission - consent. 9 C. & P. 722; S. C. 38 E. C. L. R. 306.
  • Subscriber. 6 B. & Cr. 341.
  • Subscription list. 2 Watts, 112.
  • Substantial inhabitants. 2 M. & R. 98; S. C. 8 B. & Cr. 62.
  • Such. 2 Atk. 292.
  • Suit at law. 23 Pick. 10
  • Sum in controversy. 9 Serg. & Rawle, 301.
  • Summit of a mountain. 3 Watts & Serg. 379.
  • Superfine flour. 9 Watts, R. 121.
  • Supersede. 1 Pick. R. 261.
  • Superstitious use. 1 Watts, 224.
  • Support. A decent and comfortable support and maintenance out of my estate, in sickness and in health during my natural life. 2 Sandf. Ch. R. 91.
  • Surety. 1 Scam. R. 35.
  • Surplus. 18 Ves. 466; 3 Bac. Ab. 67; 2 Pa. St. R. 129.
  • Survivors. 17 Ves. 482; 5 Ves. 465.
  • Survivor and survivors. 3 Burr. 1881; 8 B. & Cr. 231.
  • Suine. 15 Mass. 205.
  • Take. 2 Pet. R. 538.
  • Take and fill shares. 1 Fairf. 478.
  • Taken out of the state. 1 Hill, 150.
  • Tapering. 2 Stark. N. P,. C. 249.
  • Taxes and other public dues. 2 Leigh, R. 178.
  • Tea kettle and appurtenances. Ward on Leg. 222; Mos. 47; 1 Eq. Ab. 201.
  • Ten acres of peas. 1 Brownl. 149.
  • Terra. Cro. Jac. 573; Palm. 102; 4 Mod. 98; Cowp. 349.
  • Testamentary estate. 2 H. Bl. 444; Vide 6 B. Moo. 268; S. C. 3 Bro. & B. 85.
  • That is to say. 1 Serg. & Rawle, 141.
  • The county aforesaid. 2 Bl. R. 847.
  • The dangers of the river excepted. 1 Miss. R. 81; 2 Bailey's R. 157.
  • The said defendant. 2 Marsh. R. 101; S. C. 6 Taunt. R. 122, 406.
  • The said E. R. 9 C. & P. 215; S. C. 38 E. C. L. R. 87.
  • The said N. 2 Car. Law Repos. 75.
  • The said property. 3 Mann & Gr. 356.
  • The parties shall abide by the award of arbitrators, 6 N. H. Rep. 162.
  • The said plaintiff. 2 Marsh. R. 101; S. C. 6 Taunt. R. 122, 406.
  • The same rents and covenants. 1 Bro. P. C. 522; 3 Atk. 83; Cowp. 819; 2 Bro. Ch. R. 639, note.
  • Them. 9 Watts, R. 346; Orl. Bridg. 214.
  • Them or any of them. 3 Serg. & Rawle, 393.
  • Then. Then and there. 2 Atk. 398; 4 Ves. 698, 1 P. Wms. 594; 1 Brown's C. C. 190; Ld. Raym. 577; Id. 1,23.
  • Then next. 9 Cowen, 255.
  • Thereabouts. Moll. 232.
  • Thereafter. 13 L. R. 556.
  • Thereafter built. 2 Leigh, 721.
  • Thereinbefore mentioned. Ward. on Leg. 105, 344; 7 Ves. 391.
  • Thereafterwards continuing his said assault. 2 Mass. 50.
  • Therefore the defendant is indebted. 1 T. R. 716; 2 B. & P. 48.
  • Thing patented. 1 How. U. S. 202.
  • Thereunto belonging. 22 E. C. L. R. 171.
  • This indenture. 2 Wash. 58.
  • Things. 11 Ves. 666.
  • Third parties. 1 N. S. 884.
  • This demise. 2 Bl. R. 973.
  • Thrush. Oliph. on Law of Horses, 59.
  • Thousand. 3 B. & Ad. 728.
  • Through. 7 Pick. R. 274.
  • To be kept by the secretary. 1 Scott's N. R. 215.
  • Timber. 7 Johns. R. 234; 1 Madd. Ch. 140, n.
  • Time. Till she arrives. From her beginning to load. On the ship's arrival. And is there moored twenty-four hours in good safety. 8 Chit. Com. Law, 462. Within four days. 15 Serg. & Rawle, 43. Time being. Ang. Corp. 284.
  • Title. An indefeasable title in fee simple, such as the state makes. 3 Bibb, R. 317; 4 Shepl. R. 164.
  • To a stream. 3 Sumn. R. 170.
  • To be begotten. 1 M. & S. 124.
  • To be by her freely possessed and enjoyed. 12 S. & R. 56; Cows. 352.
  • To be signed and published by her, in the presence of, and to be attested by two or more credible witnesses. Curt. Eccl. R. 1.
  • To be paid when in funds. Minor's R. 173; 7 Greenl. R. 126.'
  • To them. 9 Watts, 351, 352.
  • To do the needful. 4 Esp. R. 66.
  • To, from or by. 1 Shepley's R. 198.
  • To settle. 2 Miles, R. 1.
  • To his knowledge and belief. 1 H. Bl. 245.
  • To the best of his knowledge and belief. 8 T. R. 418; 1 Wils. 232.
  • To the legatees above named. 17 S. & R. 61.
  • To the order. 1 Watts. & Serg. 418.
  • To render a fair and perfect account, in writing, of all sums received. 1 Dougl. R. 382
  • To sue. 3 B. & C. 178, 1083.
  • To wait awhile. 1 Penna. R. 385.
  • Toll. 2 Show,. 34.
  • Took the oath in such case required by the act of congress. 5 Leigh's R. 743.
  • Tools. 2 Whart. 26.
  • Touch and stay. 1 Marsh. Ins. 188; 1 Esp. N. R. 610; Wesk. Ins. 548.
  • Transact all business. 22 E. C. L. R. 397; 1 Taunt. R. 349; 5 B. & Ald. 204, 210, 211; 1 Yo. & Col. 394.
  • Transaction. 7 Mann. & Gr. 538.
  • Treasonable practices. 1 Stuart's L. C. R. 4.
  • Tree. 2 Dev. 162.
  • Trees, woods, coppice-wood grounds, of what kind or growth soever. 4 Taunt. 316.
  • True value. 17 Wheat. R. 419; 1 Stuart's L. C. R. 419.
  • Trifling. 1 W. & S. 328; 14 S. & R. 349.
  • Trinkets. 1 Carr. & Marsh. 45.
  • Truly. 2 Brock. R. 484, 5.
  • Tunc. 5 Mann. & Gr. 696.
  • Turnpike Road. 20 Johns. R. 742.
  • Two years after demand. 8 D. & R. 347.
  • Unavoidable accident. 1 Brock. R. 187.
  • Understood. 2 Cox's Ch. R. 16.
  • Underwood. 2 Rolle's R. 485.
  • Unexecuted writ. 1 Barr. N. J. Rep. 154.
  • Unless. Boyle on Char. 291; 1 Mer. 102; 3 Id. 65, 79; 3 Burr. 1550.
  • Unmarried. 2 Supp. to Ves. jr. 43; 2 Barn. & Ald. 452. Without being married. 7 Ves. 458.
  • Until. Cows. 571; 5 East, 250; Cas. t. Hard. 116. Until she hath moored at anchor twenty-four hours in good safety. Park, Ins. 35; 1 Marsh. Ins. 262; 2 Str. 1248; 1 Esp. Rep. 412.
  • Unto and amongst. 9 Ves. 445.
  • Up the creek. 1 Wilc. R. 508.
  • Used. 1 Chit. Pr. 214.
  • Use till paid. Kirb. 145.
  • Useful invention. 1 Mason, R. 302; 4 Wash. C. C. R. 9.
  • Usque. 2 Mod. 280.
  • Usual clauses. 2 Chit. Com. Law, 227; 1 Mer. R. 459.
  • Usual covenants. Platt on Cov. 430.
  • Usual terms. 8 Mod. 308; Barnes, 330; 3 Chit. Pr. 705.
  • Usurped power. 2 Marsh. Ins. 700; 2 Wils. 363.
  • Usury. Vide 2 Rick. (2d ed.) 152, n. 1; 5 Mass. R. 53; 7 Mass. R. 36; 10 Mass. R. 121; 13 Mass. R. 443; 4 Day, R. 37; 2 Com. R. 341; 7 Johns. R. 402; S. C. 8 Johns. R. 218; 4 Dall. R. 216; 2 Dall. R. 92; 6 Munf. R. 430, 433; 3 Ohio R. 18; 1 Blackford's R. 336; 1 Fairfield, R. 315; 2 Chit. Cr. Law, *549; 3 Ld. Raym. 36; Trem. P. C. 269; Co. Entr. 394, 435; Rast. Entr. 689; Cro. C. C. 743; Com. Dig. Usury, C; 4 Bl. Com. 158; Hard. 420.
  • Vacancies. 2 Wend. 273.
  • Vacancy. 1 Breese's R. 70.
  • Valuable things. 1 Cox, t7; 1 Bro. C. C. 467.
  • Value received. 3 M. & S. 351; 5 M. & S. 65; 5 B. & C. 360; S. C. 11 Engl. C. L. R. 252; 3 Kent, Com. 50; Maxw. L. Dict. h.t.; 1 Hall, 201; 1 Blackf. R. 41; 2 M'Lean, R. 213. True value. 11 Wheat. 419.
  • Vegetable production. 1 Mo. & Mal. 341.
  • Victual. 3 Inst. 195; Hale's P. C. 152; Cro. Car. 231 Bac. Ab.
  • Forestalling, B; 1 East, R. 169.
  • Victualler. 9 E. & E. 406; 6 Watts & Serg. 278.
  • Videlicet. 8 Ves. 194.
  • Village or town. Co. Litt. 5; Plowd. 168; Touchst. 92.
  • Voluntary assignment. 3 Sumn. R. 345.
  • Wantonness. 1 Wheel. Cr. Cas. 365; 4 W. C. C. R. 534; 1 Hill, 46, 363.
  • Warbles. Oliph. on Law of Horses, 53; 9 M. & W. 670.
  • Warehouse. Cro. Car. 554; Gilb. Ej. 57; 2 Rosc. R. Act. 484; 8
  • Mass. 490. Waste. 1 Ves. 461; 2 Ves. 71.
  • Watch. Ward on Leg. 221; Mos. 112.
  • Water lots. 14 Pet. R. 302.
  • Way. In, through, and along. 1 T. R. 560.
  • Well and truly executes the duties of his office. 1 Pet. R. 69.
  • Well and truly to administer. 9 Mass. 114, 119, 370; 13 John. 441; 1 Bay, 328.
  • Well and truly to administer according to law. 1 Litt. R. 93, 100.
  • What I may die possessed of. 8 Ves. 604; 3 Call, 225.
  • What remains. 11 Ves. 330.
  • Wharf. 6 Mass. 332.
  • Wheat. An unthrashed parcel of wheat. 1 Leach, 494; 2 East, P. C. 1018; 2 T. R. 255.
  • Wheezing. Oliph. on Law of Horses, 61.
  • When. 6 Ves. 239; 11 Ves. 489; 3 Bro. C. C. 471.
  • When able. 3 Esp. 159; 3 E. C. L. R. 264, note; 4 Esp. 36.
  • When received. 13 Ves. 325.
  • When the same shall be recovered. lb.
  • When or if. 1 Hare, R. 10.
  • When paid. 15 S. & R. 114.
  • Wherefore he prays judgment, &c. 2 John. Cas. 312.
  • Whereupon. 6 T. R. 573.
  • Whilst. 7 Fast, 116.
  • Wholesale factory prices. 2 Conn. R. 69.
  • Widows and Orphans. 2 Sim. & Stu. 93.
  • Wife. 3 Ves. 570.
  • Willful. 1 Benth. Ev. 351.
  • Willful and corrupt. 1 Benth. Rat. Jud. Ev. 351.
  • Willfully. 8 Law Rep. 78.
  • Will. He will change. 2 B. & B. 223.
  • With. 2 Vern. 466; Prec. Ch. 200; 1 Atk. 469; 2 Sch. & Lef. 189; 3 Mer. 437; 2 B. & Ald. 710; 2 B. & P. 443.
  • With all faults. 5 B. & A. 240; 7 E. C. L. R. 82; 3 E. C. L. R. 475.
  • With surety. 6 Binn. 53; 12 Serg. & Rawle, 112.
  • With the prothonotary. 5 Binn. 461.
  • With all usual and reasonable covenants. 12 Ves. 179, 186; 3 Bro. C. C. 632; 15 Ves. 528; 3 Anstr. 700.
  • With sureties. 2 Bos. & Pull. 443.
  • With effect. 2 Watts & Serg. 33.
  • With liberty. 8 Gill & John. 190.
  • Within four days. 15 Serg. & Rawle, 43.
  • Within ___ days after. 3 Serg. & Rawle, 395.
  • Without fraud, deceit or oppression. 6 Wend. 454.
  • Without prejudice. 2 Chit. Pr. 24, note (x); 3 Mann. & Gr. 903.
  • Without recourse. 1 Cowen, 538; 3 Cranch, 193; 7 Cranch, 159; 12 Mass. 172; 14 Serg. & Rawle, 325; 8 W. & S. 353; 2 Penn. St. R. 200. Vide article Sans Recours, in the body of this work.
  • Without reserve. 5 Mass. R. 34.
  • Wm. William. 1 Scam. R. 451.
  • Wood. Cro. Jac. 166.
  • Wood-land. 1 Serg. & Rawle, 169.
  • Woods. 4 Mass. 268.
  • Working days. 1 Bell's Com. 577, 5th ed
  • Worldly labor. 4 Bing. 84; S. C. 13 R. 351.
  • Worth and value. 3 B. & C. 516.
  • Writing. 14 John. 484; 8 Ves. 504; 2 M. & S. 286; 17 Ves. 459.
  • Writing in pencil. 1 Eng. Eccl. Rep. 406.
  • Yard lane. Touchs. 93; Co. Litt. 5.
  • Yearly meeting of Quakers. 6 Conn. 393.
  • Yearly meeting. 6 Conn. 292.
  • You. 2 Dowl. R. 145; S. C. 6 Leg. Obs. 138.

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30 Layton Companies Professional constructon services including construction management, design-build and general contracting across the country.
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