For in 1477 representatives and leaders of the urban craft guilds
had formed a political coalition with the nucleus of the Moreel faction--a coalition that would govern the city in the following years.
Indeed, the formal division between male and female roles involved the seating of wives separately from their husbands at church, their exclusion from the frequently held dinners and drinkings held by the craft guilds
, as well as their exclusion from all craft and civic offices.
Swanson, `The Illusion of Economic Structure: Craft Guilds
in Late Medieval English Towns', Past and Present, no.
55) In both countries, craft guilds
had their own bazaar, were among the most politically conscious groups in society, and played an important role in the life of their cities.
This theoretical frame lends itself to an analysis of the peculiarities of the craft guilds
and the developments that caused their decline and replacement by formal organizations.
Most towns in England had at least a few presentations by their own craft guilds
or parish clerks or by visiting players; about a dozen of the large towns developed large cycles of mystery plays after 1311, when the Corpus Christi day festival was confirmed, and the plays were given annually as commercial pageants under civic control.
During the past seven years, the Freemen's eight craft guilds
, whose own historic trade and commercial links are believed to stretch back nearly seven centuries, have donated PS80,000 to a range of good causes.
During the next two centuries other tradesmen and craftsmen also joined together in trade or craft guilds
such as bakers and brewers, butchers, coopers and goldsmiths.
From the end of the fourteenth century forward, craft guilds
proliferated, as their definition and regulation became a means for the city government to control the labor force according to the 1363-64 statute that "artiticers handicraft people, hold them every one to one mystery .
routinely struck various alliances with each other and with parts of the urban patriciate to confront princely power and their own urban authorities in an effort to realize pragmatic, crucial economic needs.
Unlike England's many craft guilds
the Ludlow's Palmers' Guild was primarily a religious body, but one which cared for its membership in life as well as in death.
In medieval times the anniversary of her death was always marked by Coventry's powerful craft guilds
who baked God cakes and walked in procession.