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Ample material drawn from the latest research has been integrated into the text and highlighted in special feature boxes, including recent views on homology, cranial nerve organization and evolution, the relatively large and elaborate brains of birds in correlation with their complex cognitive abilities, and the current debate on forebrain evolution across reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Ophthalmoparesis occurs when cranial nerves III, IV, and VI are involved by granulomatous inflammation.
Schwannomas arising from within the parapharyngeal space may originate from cranial nerves IX through XII or the sympathetic trunk.
Mobius syndrome can also involve other cranial nerves like IX, X, XI and XII nerves rarely along with various musculoskeletal and cardiovascular anomalies.
Most later reports described Tapia syndrome as a peripheral disease of the Xth and XIIth cranial nerves.
Adie's Pupil Ophthalmoplegic Migraine Associated Ocular/extraocular Headache with etiology diseases (Ross syndrome, migraine-like features and celiac disease, ocular motor impairment, amyloidosis, diabetes, mainly third and sixth autoimmune hepatitis, cranial nerves 22.
Sarcoidosis rarely manifests by involving the cranial nerves exclusively.
Further, case reports and series have noted higher rates of cranial neuropathy, such as facial palsy and paresthesia, among GBS patients with evidence of Zika virus infection, suggesting that the cranial nerves may be targeted by either virus or antibody (3,6-9).
Coverage encompasses visual fields, supranuclear and internuclear gaze pathways, nystagmus and related ocular oscillations, syndromes of the cranial nerves, cavernous sinus syndrome, the pupil, the swollen optic disc, optic atrophy, myasthenia and ocular myopathies, eyelid disorders, headache, carotid artery disease and the eye, nonorganic visual disorders, disorders of higher visual function, neurocutaneous disorders, and neuroimaging.
The Food and Drug Administration has cleared a medical device that uses electrical stimulation to cranial nerves, and head and neck nerves to reduce acute opioid withdrawal symptoms.
The Food and Drug Administration has cleared a medical device that applies electrical stimulation to cranial nerves in order to reduce opioid withdrawal symptoms.
Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are primary or secondary muscle dysinnervation disorders arising from congenital developmental anomalies or complete absence of one or multiple cranial nerves.