dna

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
The indictment is devoid of any concrete, specific facts demonstrating in any way that I did in fact take DNA construct and cell line reagents to Japan.
Though it owns the intellectual property on the hTH-GFP recombinant DNA construct, Jefferson provided this construct to MJFF for creating the hTH-GFP rat.
Benitec has key intellectual property in the field of gene silencing using DNA constructs to trigger RNA interference (granted patents include United States Patent 6,573,099; British Patent 2353282; Australian Patent 2001100608).
Fraser's team has performed tens of thousands of DNA construct insertions.
The Nucleonics' HBV clinical candidate (NUC B1000) is an expressed interfering RNA (eiRNA) based product, consisting of a plasmid DNA construct that encodes four short interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules, each under the control of an RNA polymerase III promoter.
Traditional use of random insertion to introduce a DNA construct into the human genome may lead to gene disruption, variable epigenetic effects on transgene expression and presence of an unknown number of integrants in each cell, making comparisons difficult between isolated single cell clones.
html) is an expressed interfering RNA (eiRNA)-based product consisting of a plasmid DNA construct designed to produce four short interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules, formulated with a proprietary cationic-lipid delivery system.
By performing the work in-house, laboratories are able to speed up the workflow, control their project timelines, and ensure the highest accuracy of their DNA constructs.
These processes are required to systematically generate and validate DNA constructs to express the desired next-generation molecules.
The claims of 10/759,841 are directed to DNA constructs and mammalian cells containing the constructs which are used in methods of silencing viral gene expression by RNA interference.
The coding sequences can be used in DNA constructs or expression cassettes for transformation and expression in plants and bacteria.
Nanoscale DNA constructs would have the ability to be absorbed into tissues directly through the skin by contact and as such, considerations for handling, allergenicity and toxicity should be addressed by specifically regulating the technology.