dna

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Related to DNA double helix: DNA replication

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
The two lines spiral entwined upwards around the cone in a DNA double helix.
Intended for those with a thorough grounding in physics and mathematics, the book traces the dawning of awareness of these forms found in nature through quasicrystals, Fibonacci superlattices and, of course, the DNA double helix.
on gender-based medicine, and challenges to Watson and Crick's male worldview that excluded Rosalind Franklin's key role in the discovery of the DNA double helix.
Another model, which most deem to be much less likely, focuses on DNA's physical properties, suggesting that the central factor in carcinogenesis is the disruption of the DNA double helix.
O'Brien employed some biotechspeak, saying that Gateway Park is "where science, innovation and entrepreneurship come together and bind together like the DNA double helix," before getting a smattering of laughter.
Unless you're a member of the '82 North Carolina or '85 Villanova squads, how do you bet against the G'town DNA double helix that has a Thompson and a Ewing?
However, eukaryotic cells contain an additional level of information superimposed on the DNA double helix in the form of a complex nucleoprotein entity generically termed "chromatin.
The idea came from the DNA double helix because that is the thing that binds us all together," said the artist.
The discovery of the DNA double helix by Francis Crick and James Watson in 1953 confirmed his intuition of a hidden order, encouraging his belief in the transformational power of "nuclear mysticism"--that is, in what he called the vision of matter constantly in the process of dematerialization, of disintegration, thus showing the spirituality of all substance.
An automatic flour dispenser will be shown feeding a DNA double helix mixer and, for the first time, their PLC recipe controller, which provides proportional weighing of flour and tempered water, will be on view, alongside the Mindos system for automated ingredient feed, and their new generation of high pressure glaze sprayers.
These revolutions are interconnected, as Kaku notes; discovery of the DNA double helix, for example, relied on X-ray crystallography, a technique derived from quantum physics.
What is emerging from this effort is a conception of the mind so foreign to common notions, so at odds with the view of the average person, that this idea has been called "the astonishing hypothesis" by Nobel laureate Francis Grick, co-discoverer of the DNA double helix.