dna

(redirected from DNA gyrase)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to DNA gyrase: Topoisomerase, Quinolones

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Contrasting enzymatic activities of topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase from Escherichia coli.
Compared to other antimicrobials, resistance to the fluoroquinolones occurs much less frequently via mutation, taking place either in the DNA gyrase, in bacterial outer membrane proteins (in gram-negative organisms), or in efflux pumps that remove the agent from the cytoplasm, seen primarily in S.
Yamagishi, Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of a Novel Series of DNA Gyrase Inhibitors: 5-[(E)-2-arylvinyl]pyrazoles, Bioorg.
Interaction between DNA gyrase and quinolones: effects of alanine mutations at GyrA subunit residues Ser(83) and Asp(87).
Selective Targeting of Topoisomerase IV and DNA Gyrase in Staphylococcus aureus: Different Patterns of Quinolone-Induced Inhibition of DNA Synthesis.
The goal of this study was to determine the resistance mechanism to fluoroquinolones in Salmonella isolates and investigate the association of quinolone resistance with mutations in the genes encoding for DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV of S.
Molecular studies indicated that the isolates had identical mutations in the genes encoding DNA gyrase (gyrA) and topoisomerase IV (parC), mutations associated with fluoroquinolone resistance.
The type II topoisomerase DNA gyrase is already a proven target for anti-tuberculosis therapy.
It combines to DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV enzymes, intervenes with strand opening and resealing function through DNA replication in the bacteria [10].
Fluroquinolones are potent DNA gyrase inhibitor causing bactericidal action (Prescott and Baggot, 1994) is active against most of gram positive and gram negative bacteria.