dna

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
A thermostable DNA polymerase with no 5' nuclease activity (AmpliTaq FS) and a thermostable DNA ligase are used.
The recent observations that DNA ligase III levels are decreased in the absence of ATM may also explain these results (Sharma et al.
05 [micro]l (40 U/[micro]l) ligase (Taq DNA ligase enzyme system), 1 [micro]l PCR product (100 ng/[micro]l), and 6.
The kit combines TurboLigase[TM], an ultrapure recombinant T4 DNA Ligase, and 5x TurboLigation buffer, an optimized quick ligation buffer.
Descriptively, the hOGG1 gene on chromosome 3p26 catalyzes the cleavage of a glycosylic bond between the modified base and a sugar moiety, leaving an abasic apurinic/apyrimidinic site in DNA which is then incised followed by a few successive actions of a phosphodiesterase that completes the repair process with a final function by a DNA polymerase, and a DNA ligase (7,8).
In the blunt end, a DNA ligase will join together the 3' end and the 5' end of one molecule with the 5' end and the 3' end, respectively, of another molecule.
Note exquisite sensitivity in cell strains derived from DNA damage sensing- or repair-deficient cells derived from patients with abnormal ATM, NBS1 and DNA ligase IV proteins.
The insert and vector were then ligated using T4 DNA ligase following the manufacturer's protocol.
Ligation was carried out using T4 DNA Ligase (Promega) in a 4[degrees]C overnight reaction.