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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
2: Steps in the Design and Implementation of a DNA Microarray Experiment 47 Table 4.
Software and Databases: A breakdown of end-user practices in the use of software and databases (including software/database market brands or in-house) in the conduct of PCR, DNA microarray, DNA sequencing, mass spectrometry, flow cytometry and disease biomarker studies.
A DNA Microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.
Kricka and Master highlight some of these problems with protein microarrays and the quality-control metrics required for development of this growing technology into a fully mature field similar to DNA microarrays.
Last year, Agilent acquired Silicon Genetics (see IBO 8/31/04), a maker of DNA microarray software, which has agreements in place with Affymetrix.
But now we'll know which genes could be responsible if they are expressed, because they'll show up on the DNA microarray.
All of us at Mergen prefer to focus our resources on providing the highest quality DNA microarrays and services.
Consumables : A breakdown of end-user practices in the use of consumables in the conduct of PCR, DNA microarray, DNA sequencing, mass spectrometry, flow cytometry and disease biomarker studies.
This report, based on an analysis of current and evolving developments in the DNA microarray field, has been produced to assist marketing and sales in this field, and the identification of new opportunities.
This book also lacks coverage of the application of microarrays to comparative genomic hybridization and of the specific data analysis challenges associated with using DNA microarrays to measure DNA copy number as opposed to expression, as well as with the integration of both sets of data.
1 Other disease biomarkers studied using DNA microarray, indicated by individuals who participated in Microarray 2012