dna

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Related to DNA molecule: DNA replication, DNA structure

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
The only thing the Venter scientists made from scratch was a DNA molecule.
the non-fetal-specific allele) were included in the assembly of the non-fetal-specific methylome, which predominantly consisted of maternally derived DNA molecules.
Indeed, the structure of a DNA molecule determines the information carried by this molecule.
Bashkin's mimics, based on stouter DNA molecules, are smaller, simpler, and lighter than naturally occurring ribozymes and can be made to resist enzyme degradation better.
When a special buffer fluid is applied to a DNA inked surface, a biochemical reaction occurs between the coating of the DNA molecules in the ink and the fluid.
In a nutshell, my research utilizes organic chemistry to assemble novel DNA molecules that are used to probe various biochemical processes such as HIV-1 replication and resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy.
Watson gives us juicy tidbits about the discovery of the DNA molecule and infighting in the scientific community, as well as debunking theories such as eugenics.
Some restriction enzymes cut straight across the double helix, referred to as "blunt" ends; however, many cleave a DNA molecule at different sites, resulting in overhanging pieces of single-stranded DNA called "sticky ends.
1953 Biochemists James Watson and Francis Crick discover that the DNA molecule has a double-helix structure.
DNA amplification technologies limit DNA molecule length to under a thousand basepairs.
What Professor Tan and co-workers have done is to create a clever light-actuated nanomotor involving a single DNA molecule.
Their "nanometronome" is the first example of such control over a single DNA molecule, the team contends.