dna

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Related to DNA polymerase: RNA polymerase, DNA replication

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
In our experiments, we used a mixture of DyNAzyme II DNA polymerase from Thermus brockianus (Finzymes) and Pfu DNA polymerase from Pyrococcus furiosus (Fermentas), which possesses 3' [right arrow] 5' proofreading activity.
In light of previous sections of this series, the reader will now recognize that the structures present at (C) represent substrates for DNA polymerase to work on.
0 (containing buffer, AmpliTaq DNA polymerase FS, dNTPs, and fluorescently labeled ddNTPs).
If Ellenberger and his colleagues have captured a DNA polymerase at a critical junction of its work, Beese's group has high hopes of filming every detail of its job.
The DNA polymerase binds to the primer/template pair with the enzyme active site placed over the 3'-01-1 of the printer.
However, results from such amplifications can be compromised by a DNA polymerase incapable of evenly amplifying diverse types of sequences.
5 [micro]L of 10x Accuprime Pfx Reaction Mix from the Accuprime Pfx DNA Polymerase Kit (cat.
DNA polymerase moves along the template, selecting the appropriate bases and linking them together to form the second strand of the double helix.
A major obstacle for broad-range PCR amplification is the presence of bacterial DNA in the Taq DNA polymerase and real-time PCR master mixture (8-10).
thermostable DNA polymerase, which catalyzes DNA production
They looked at a leukemia virus' DNA polymerase, an enzyme that connects the building blocks of DNA.
The newly designed STR product comes complete with internal lane standard in addition to hot-start Taq DNA polymerase premixed in the reaction buffer.

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