dna

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Related to DNA probe: PCR, DNA fingerprinting

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
At about the same time, a group at the Weizmann Institute created DNA probes that not only recognize the species but also distinguish pathogenic amoebas from benign ones, demonstrating a genetic difference.
This same protocol was also used for hybridization using the 20-oligomer biotinylated DNA probe.
Clinicians were not as accurate as the DNA probe test in diagnosing vaginal infections.
Development and evaluation of PCR assay for detection of low levels of Cowdria ruminantium infection in Amblyomma ticks not detected by DNA probe.
5%) screened by combination DNA probe during gel months and 28 of 2,626 patients (1.
The results of his randomized study of 3,460 Pap smears and 5,535 combination DNA probe assays appear to refute dogma long etched in text-books that warns clinicians to beware of gel lubrication because of purported interference with cervical microbiology or with interpretation of a Pap smear.
The results of his randomized study of 3,460 Pap smears and 5,535 combination DNA probe assays appear to refute dogma long etched in textbooks that warns clinicians to beware of gel lubrication because of purported interference with cervical microbiology or with interpretation of a Pap smear.
Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, has received FDA approval for its Vysis PathVysion HER-2 DNA Probe Kit to detect the HER-2/neu gene in breast cancer patients for use in identifying women with metastatic breast cancer who could benefit from Herceptin therapy.
The test Heilmann developed to ascertain a wasp's eastern Mediterranean origin involves simply squashing the wasp on filter paper, immersing the paper in a radioactive DNA probe solution, rinsing, and then testing for any significant residual telltale radioactivity.
Under the agreement, Affymetrix will have the right for a specified time, extendible based on commercialization milestones, to sell expression monitoring DNA probe arrays based on the Human Genome Sciences database to Human Genome Sciences and its database consortium members.
M2 PHARMA-June 16, 2011-Ventana says FDA greenlights INFORM HER2 Dual ISH DNA Probe cocktail assay(C)2011 M2 COMMUNICATIONS
Molecular diagnostic assays, such as nested polymerase chain reaction and a species-specific DNA probe from the ribosomal DNA complex, have been useful to identify P.

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