dna

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Related to DNA probe: PCR, DNA fingerprinting

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
The annual market worldwide for DNA probe diagnostics is estimated and the growth rate projected to 2005.
Dr Terry Smith, of the National Diagnostics Centre at NUI Galway, said: "The Space Probe Technology uses DNA probes to detect infectious disease.
With the prototype research done, many DNA probes should soon become available for identifying exotic and native North American Encarsia and other wasps.
The company's GeneChip system consists of disposable DNA probe arrays containing gene sequences on a chip, reagents for use with the probe arrays, a scanner and other instruments to process the probe arrays and software to analyze and manage genetic information.
With an average monthly test volume of 400 specimens for chlamydia and gonorrhea, our facility was ripe for the picking to become a high volume DNA probe user if the representative could just find someone to do the work.
Development and evaluation of PCR assay for detection of low levels of Cowdria ruminantium infection in Amblyomma ticks not detected by DNA probe.
screened 519 pregnant women for chlamydia and gonorrhea using Gram staining, the results of which were compared against the current benchmark, DNA probe testing.
The Gray-Pinkel patent covers the sale and use of FISH ("Fluorescence in situ hybridization") assays using gene-specific DNA probes together with blocking DNA.
If the DNA being tested hybridizes instead to features where the DNA probes contain a G at that spot, it would signify that the tested sample had a C instead of an A there, representing a single mutation.
In order to successfully capitalize on the opportunities presented by the molecular diagnostics market, many companies are already exploiting new DNA probe and biochip technologies as corporate strategic assets, managed in support of business and marketing strategies.
and Hospital Saint-Luc in Montreal recently isolated a DNA probe that identifies a glutathione-related enzyme, one they predict will be used as a marker to detect precancerous changes in cells.

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