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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Reduction of the DNA repair factor led to an accumulation of DNA damage and to neuronal shrinkage.
After reading studies from the National Institute of Health (NIH) about the success of DNA Repair Enzymes in helping to repair damaged DNA, Dr.
Vogelstein also said mismatch repair is a marker for response to anti-PD-1 inhibitor drugs such as Keytruda because patients with mismatch repair defects have tumors teeming with mutations -- far more than cancer patients with functioning DNA repair genes.
5) A fundamental problem with pathological aging is faulty DNA repair.
Among the topics are DNA repair by reversal of DNA damage, the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA integrity, nucleosome dynamics as modular systems that integrate DNA damage and repair, trans-lesion DNA synthesis and mutagenesis in prokaryotes, and Deinococcus radiodurans and the biology of extreme radiation resistance.
But given the toxic nature of caffeine at high doses, researchers from the faculties of medicine and dentistry and science instead opted to use it to identify genes and pathways responsible for DNA repair.
While exercise is good in moderation, punishing your body for more than an hour can distract the immune system from DNA repair.
Previously the same team had shown that a DNA repair protein called XPA waxed and waned throughout the day.
By themselves, PARP inhibitors are unable to kill cancer cells but when used to target cancer cells that lack a protein normally produced by the BRCA1 gene, which is also involved in DNA repair, the two factors act together to attack the cancer cell.
In clinical studies, DNA repair enzymes were shown to reduce DNA damage by 45% and increase UV protection by 300% in just one hour, according to the company.
For the first time in 1969, the crucial role played by DNA repair in preventing cancer was conclusively demonstrated by Cleaver (2), when he identified a defect in the pathway of excision repair among patients with Xeroderma Pigmentosum.
Scientists have found that DNA repair genes in cancer tumours help determine the success or failure of chemotherapy.