dna

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Related to DNA sequencing: DNA fingerprinting

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Since 1975, DNA sequencing technology has been through four generations, but the fourth-generation tcchnology-Nanoporc sequencing is still under development.
Companies profiled in "Global and China DNA Sequencing Industry Research Report, 20142017" include Illumina, Thermo Fisher Scientific, BGI, Roche, Qiagen, Pacific Biosciences, Sequenom, DA AN Gene, Agilent Technologies, Berry Genomics, Hunan China Sun Pharmaceutical Machinery and Jilin Zixin Pharmaceutical Industrial.
7 million over three years to University of Washington for the development of novel molecular biology platforms to efficiently and cost-effectively stitch together genomes across long distances, which may help increase the quality of genomes generated by new DNA sequencing techniques.
One microgram of close circular super coiled gWizHbs DNA plasmid was used to sequence the HBs antigen cDNA inserted in the Bam H1site of the gWiz plasmid using the Sanger & Coulson dideoxy DNA sequencing method [25].
Researchers used whole-exome NextGen DNA sequencing technology to identify causative mutations in Bartter, Miller, and Freeman-Sheldon syndromes, which are rare human genetic conditions (Proc.
Commenting on the report, an analyst from TechNavio's Healthcare team said: "The Global DNA Sequencing Products market has witnessed an increase in the number of acquisitions by the leading vendors recently.
Given the broad utility and high importance of dramatically reducing DNA sequencing costs, the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) is launching two parallel technology development programs.
Consumables : A breakdown of end-user practices in the use of consumables in the conduct of PCR, DNA microarray, DNA sequencing, mass spectrometry, flow cytometry and disease biomarker studies.
The goal of research supported under this RFA is to develop or improve technology to enable rapid, efficient genomic DNA sequencing.
Regardless of the exact information DNA sequencing may provide in the future, it seems certain that the current chronological record holders will not reign for long.
Fields: A breakdown of end-user practices in the use of software and databases (including software/database market brands or in-house) by field (biotechnology, chemicals, clinical or hospital, defence, diagnostics, energy, environmental, food and drink, forensics, geology, government, healthcare, natural products, pharmaceuticals, research institutes, security and university) in the conduct of PCR, DNA microarray, DNA sequencing, mass spectrometry, flow cytometry and disease biomarker studies.