dna

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Related to DNA sequencing: DNA fingerprinting

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Estimates of facilities performing DNA sequencing and molecular diagnostic testing in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, UK and USA.
Critique: DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
commercial laboratory, operating a network of DNA sequencing and
Most investigators interested in reducing DNA sequencing costs anticipate that a few additional two-fold decreases in cost can yet be achieved with the current CAE-based technology, with a realistic lower limit of perhaps $5 million per mammalian-sized genome.
GnuBIO, whose platform is based on Microfluidic DNA Sequencing, will use this funding to further develop its core technology towards rapid and accurate whole genome sequencing for less than $1000.
The upstream sectors of DNA sequencing industry are extremely robust, with the global market dominated by the second-generation DNA sequencing enterprises including Illumina, Thermo Fisher Scientific (through Life Technologies), Roche and the third-generation sequencing enterprises such as Pacific Biosciences.
The goal of research supported under this RFA is to develop or improve technology to enable rapid, efficient genomic DNA sequencing.
Six schoolmates were positive for SARS-CoV by RT-PCR, confirmed later by DNA sequencing for repli-case.
com/research/qvjfxt/global_dna) has announced the addition of the "Global DNA Sequencing Products Market 2012-2016" report to their offering.
LONDON, May 20, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- DNA sequencing is the process of reading nucleotide bases in a specific DNA molecule, that is to say determining the arrangement mode of adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine.
17, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Global and China DNA Sequencing Industry Research Report, 2014-2017" report to their offering.