dna

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Related to DNA structure: DNA replication

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Our work suggests that drugs that modify DNA structure may be beneficial for treating Alzheimer's Disease," they wrote.
The DNA structure also became a "model" for public sculpture.
As chronicled in Watson's The Double Helix (which made him tons of money), on a chilly English day in January of 1953, he travelled to King's College from Cambridge carrying a preprint of Linus Pauling's incorrect proposal for DNA structure.
In the first stage, we studied the designing and production of a nanobiosensor that can detect the medicine attached to this specific DNA structure.
Research shows that topical application of lycopene plays an integral role in stabilizing DNA structure in the nucleus of the skin cells as well as maintaining the DNA double strand-break repair pathway.
Besides the utility of the technique, its use of labeled probes that are complementary to a target sequence serves as a useful reminder of DNA structure in the classroom.
NF1 causes a change in DNA structure, which only happens in about 1 out of 3,500 births.
One of Sleiman's major innovations has been the incorporation of synthetic organic or metal-based linking molecules into the DNA structure.
The theme is the cell as a unit of life, and the topics include water and macromolecules, DNA structure and the genetic code, transcription and the control of gene expression, protein structure, energy trading within the cell, and intercellular communication.
Calderan, a self-proclaimed extreme adventurer and King Of The Desert, in an attempt to promote a genomics test of one's DNA structure, has been running on a treadmill non-stop for 10 hours a day since Monday at the Human Genome Meeting at World Trade Center.
Bacteria is not only using the arsenic but also adding the arsenic to its life mechanism something like its DNA structure.
THE PATENTED SANICART-UV SYSTEM IS A COMPACT METAL UNIT that uses high-intensity germicidal ultraviolet light technology to destroy the DNA structure of germs, bacteria and viruses found on shopping carts, according to company officials.