Month

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MONTH. A space of time variously computed, as it is applied to astronomical, civil or solar, or lunar months.
     2. The astronomical month contains one-twelfth part of the time employed by the sun in going through the zodiac. In law, when a month simply is mentioned, it is never understood to mean an astronomical month.
     3. The civil or solar month is that which agrees with the Gregorian calendar, and these months are known by the names of January, February, March, &c. They are composed of unequal portions of time. There are seven of thirty-one days each, four of thirty, and one which is sometimes composed of twenty-eight days, and in leap years, of twenty-nine.
     4. The lunar mouth is composed of twenty-eight days only. When a law is passed or contract made, and the month is expressly stated to be solar or civil, which is expressed by the term calendar month, or when it is expressed to be a lunar month, no difficulty can arise; but when time is given for the performance of an act, and the word month simply is used, so that the intention of the parties cannot be ascertained then the question arises, how shall the month be computed? By the law of England a month means ordinarily, in common contracts, as, in leases, a lunar month; a contract, therefore, made for a lease of land for twelve months, would mean a lease for forty-eight weeks only. 2 Bl. Com. 141; 6 Co. R. 62; 6 T. R. 224. A distinction has been made between "twelve months," and "a twelve-month;" the latter has been held to mean a year. 6 Co. R. 61.
     5. Among the Greeks and Romans the months were lunar, and probably the mode of computation adopted in the English law has been adopted from the codes of these countries. Clef des Lois Rom. mot Mois.
     6. But in mercantile contracts, a month simply signifies a calendar month; a promissory note to pay money in twelve months, would therefore mean a promise to pay in one year, or twelve calendar months. Chit. on Bills, 406; 1 John. Cas. 99; 3 B. & B. 187; 1 M. & S. 111; Story on Bills, Sec. 143; Story, P. N. Sec. 213; Bayl. on Bills, c. 7; 4 Kent, Comm. Sect. 56; 2 Mass. 170; 4 Mass. 460; 6 Watts. & Serg. 179.
     7. In general, when a statute Speaks of a month, without adding "calendar," or other words showing a clear intention, it shall be intended a lunar month. Com. Dig. Ann. B; 4 Wend. 512; 15 John. R. 358. See 2 Cowen, R. 518; Id. 605. In all legal proceedings, as in commitments, pleadings, &c. a month means four weeks. 3 Burr. R. 1455; 1 Bl. Rep. 450; Dougl. R. 446 463.
     8. In Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, and perhaps some other states, 1 Hill. Ab. 118, n., a month mentioned generally in a statute, has been construed to mean a calendar month. 2 Dall. R. 302; 4 Dall. Rep. 143; 4 Mass. R. 461; 4 Bibb. R. 105. In England, in the ecclesiastical law, months are computed by the calendar. 3 Burr. R. 1455; 1 M. & S. 111.
     9. In New York, it is enacted that whenever the term "month," or "months," is or shall be used in any statute, act, deed, verbal or written contract, or any public or private instrument whatever, it shall be construed to mean a calendar, and not a lunar month; unless otherwise expressed. Rev. Stat. part 1, c. 19, tit. 1, Sec. 4. Vide, generally, 2 Sim. & Stu. 476; 2 A. K. Marsh. Rep. 245; 3 John. Ch. Rep. 74; 2 Campb. 294; 1 Esp. R. 146; 6 T. R. 224; 1 M. & S. 111; 3 East, R. 407; 4 Moore, 465; 1 Bl. Rep. 150; 1 Bing. 307; S. C. 8 Eng. C. L. R. 328;. 1 M. & S. 111; 1 Str. 652; 6 M. & S. 227; 3 Brod. & B. 187; S. C. 7 Eng. C. L. R. 404.

References in classic literature ?
Accordingly, on the 9th of December, they struck their tents, and moved forward by short stages, as many of the Indians were yet feeble from the late malady.
Two days afterwards, on the seventh of December, they anchored at Fort Egmont, in the same island, where they remained four days taking in water and making repairs.
While all this petty anarchy was agitating the little world within the Tonquin, the good ship prosperously pursued her course, doubled Cape Horn on the 25th of December, careered across the bosom of the Pacific, until, on the 11th of February, the snowy peaks of Owyhee were seen brightening above the horizon.
He had come into the kitchen, in the twilight of a cold, gray December evening, and had sat down in the woodbox corner to take off his heavy boots, unconscious of the fact that Anne and a bevy of her schoolmates were having a practice of "The Fairy Queen" in the sitting room.
Now, by a fortunate circumstance, on the 4th of December in the ensuing year the moon
it ought to reach the moon four days after its departure, that is on the 5th of December, at midnight precisely, at the moment of her attaining her perigee, that is her nearest distance from the earth, which is exactly 86,410 leagues (French), or 238,833 miles mean distance (English).
After having been detained six days in Wigwam Cove by very bad weather, we put to sea on the 30th of December.
In 1845 Walden froze entirely over for the first time on the night of the 22d of December, Flint's and other shallower ponds and the river having been frozen ten days or more; in '46, the 16th; in '49, about the 31st; and in '50, about the 27th of December; in '52, the 5th of January; in '53, the 31st of December.
All the labourers who work here from March to December are Russians and Poles, or a mixture of both.
Vacation begins on the first of January and ends on the last day of December.
It was a change, indeed, common enough to the weather in this climate, from sunshine to clouds, from June to December.
The marriage is fixed for the twenty-second of December.