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Still, the research to date suggests that high levels of disproportionality may be more common than are cases of truly shared responsibility.
16) Despite such criticisms, however, courts have uniformly held that ACCA complies with constitutional prohibitions against double jeopardy, due process, cruel and unusual punishment, and disproportionality.
73) If racial profiling is contributing to racial disproportionality in arrests, it is doing so to a declining degree.
In a report to Merseyside Police Authority, Supt Rowley Moore, in charge of community relations for Merseyside police, said: "Clearly if some of the issues raised in this report regarding disproportionality are not addressed there is a risk of undermining community confidence in Merseyside police, particularly from these minority groups.
At the national level, it leads to disproportionality between the percentage of votes polled by political parties and the number of seats won by parties.
The linguistic difficulty with holding the phrase "cruel and unusual" to invite a pure proportionality inquiry is that although disproportionality might indeed be called cruel, it is not intrinsically unusual.
The causes of disproportionality are believed by many to be a complex interaction among system biases, social and economic conditions of families, and institutional racism.
As a result of this mandate, states began to measure their levels of disproportionality and found that, with the exception of Vermont (which did not have enough minorities to be statistically significant at the time of the report), all states were confining youths of color in numbers larger than could be accounted for by crimes alone.
This partnership expands our ability to perform disproportionality and data mining analyses to offer signal detection services for our clients.
Still, when it comes to disproportionality, Goode becomes ambivalent.
Harris,(19) the Supreme Court identified two types of proportionality review: traditional analysis of inherent disproportionality and comparative analysis of the kind Harris unsuccessfully sought to constitutionalize.