dna

(redirected from Dna viruses)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
A 151-bp sequence of the neomycin resistance gene (neo) was flanked by primer-binding sequences for each of the five different DNA viruses.
The polymerases of many organisms, including DNA viruses, are known to have a "cupped right hand" structure-a configuration of atoms that can be described as resembling a palm, fingers, and thumb.
These data extend the growing body of evidence for the potential use of CMX001 as a broad-spectrum agent against infections caused by double-stranded DNA viruses," said George Painter, Ph.
5,672,344 in September 1997 for a viral-mediated gene transfer system that uses DNA viruses to introduce new genes into mammalian cells.
Many double-stranded DNA viruses infect cells by ejecting their genetic information into a host cell.
The group of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses includes viruses that are able to infect different hosts, such as animals, green algae, and unicellular eukaryotes (1).
In addition to proven efficacy in numerous animal studies against pox viruses, we are amassing a significant body of clinical data in critically-ill patients regarding CMX001's safety and antiviral activity against double-stranded DNA viruses.
An RNA virus like hepatitis C can mutate at a rate estimated as high as one million times that of DNA viruses; in contrast, DNA viruses contain an enzyme (polymerase) that acts as something of a proof reader to ensure that newly transcribed DNA strands are the same as the original, helping to reduce mutations.
An increasingly popular vector for gene therapy is the adeno-associated virus, which borrows replication machinery from DNA viruses.
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs), small, double-stranded DNA viruses with a circular genome of [approximately equal to]8,000 bp, are assigned to different genera and species on the basis of their major capsid protein gene (L1) nucleotide sequence, which reflects their tropism (cutaneous or mucosal) and potential to induce tumors.
Additional Evidence of CMX001's Broad-Spectrum Activity Against Double-Stranded DNA Viruses
Molecular motors in double-stranded DNA viruses have never been shown in such detail before," said Siyang Sun, a postdoctoral research associate working in Rossmann's lab.