dna

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Our new system allows for visualizing DNA ends at the site of a double-stranded break in living cells.
Once the fluorescence lifetime was determined the ratio of single- to double-stranded DNA was calculated, giving the percentage of ssDNA and hence the amount of radiation exposure.
Screening synthetic DNA orders may help to reduce the risk that an individual with malicious intent could access and use synthetic double-stranded DNA products to create a dangerous organism that is currently regulated.
Riboxx Pharmaceuticals, a company focusing on the development of agonists of Toll-like Receptors, with a direct application as modulators of innate immunity, has received a patent for the process of manufacturing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for increased stability in biological fluids from the European Patent Office, it was reported yesterday.
They found that the RIG-I protein moves back and forth (translocates) selectively on double-stranded RNA, and that this activity is greatly stimulated in the presence of 5'-triphosphate.
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), which causes cold sores, uses a short, double-stranded RNA to outwit a cell's defensive measures.
Genetic and biochemical data indicate that siRNAs [19- to 25-nucleotide double-stranded (ds)RNAs] are produced from much larger RNAs by Dicer.
We sequenced a 173-nucleotide fragment of the small double-stranded viruslike RNA of Cryptosporidium parvum isolates from 23 calves and 38 humans.
Patent and Trademark Office for "Crooke Patent" Includes Methods of Activating Endogenous Cellular RNA Nucleases with Chemically Modified Double-Stranded RNAs -
M2 PHARMA-July 19, 2013-Riboxx Pharmaceuticals receives patent for double-stranded RNA manufacturing process(C)2013 M2 COMMUNICATIONS
Drug discovery company Marina Biotech Inc (OTC Markets:MRNA) Friday reported the execution of a licensing agreement for its Conformationally Restricted Nucleotide (CRN) technology for the development of both single- and double-stranded oligonucleotide therapeutics.
Zlotnick and his group combined the proteins with 500 base-pair-long pieces of double-stranded DNA in test tubes.