Fibrosis is mediated by different signaling pathways composed of cellular constituents, including inflammatory cells, epithelial cells, and fibrogenic effector cells
, and is a general condition leading to organ injury and failure.
2008 180:6382) or transduce human Fc receptor and a luciferase reporter gene that allows modeling of the NFAT response elements of the IL-2 promoter to model PBMC derived ADCC (based upon the potency of antibody Fc effector function in ADCC pathway activation in effector cells
, mAbs 2012 4:p310).
After allergen re-exposure, the probability of inflammatory factors released from activated effector cells
IL-7 also affected CD4+ T cells in the spontaneous tumor model, causing an 18-fold increase in the number of IL-17-secreting CD4+ effector cells
, indicating a strong skewing toward TH17 differentiation.
Natural killer cells and macrophages are 2 important innate immune effector cells
involved in the defense against malignant cells.
Th1, Th17, and Th9 effector cells
induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with different pathological phenotypes.
When Tregs function properly, only harmful foreign materials are attacked by T effector cells
Tregs are a natural part of the human immune system and regulate the activity of T effector cells
, which are responsible for protecting the body from viruses and other foreign antigens.
2006) CD8D T cells are effector cells
of contact dermatitis to common skin allergens in mice.
6] cells/mL as effector cells
, the effector and target cells were added at different effector-target ratios at 40:1 (400 [micro]L/100 [micro]L), 20/1 (330 [micro]L/165 [micro]L), and 10/1 (250 [micro]L/250 [micro]L) and were mixed to a final volume of 500 [micro]L in 48-well plates.
cells, which are also sources of IFN-[gamma] and TNF-[alpha], are the main effector cells
responsible for viral clearance.
The activation of Treg cells thus reduces the damaging effects of cytokines and T effector cells
in active RA.