So with the next sentence we have the same web (final) presented as the goal of the efficient cause
(formation process), which is a classic misreading of the relation between the two.
Technological Determinism spotlights connection, figure, efficient cause
, logic, pushes aside awareness of ground, formal cause, analogic reasoning (and empiricism), retrieves determinism, robotism, coercion, and, if driven to an extreme, flips into paranoia, denial.
20) The natural reading of this summary line is that aside from the efficient cause
which causes the movement from potentiality into actuality--a clear reference to the craftsman--no other cause is needed to account for unity.
Even if it is added that the agent's behavior is guided in accordance with that content, explaining his progression from the initiation to the completion of the action, the fact remains that the content is external to the efficient cause
of that progression.
The concept of efficient cause
did not emerge until the time of Empedocles, who postulated two motive forces, Love (mahabbah) and Strife (ghalabah), to account for the various changes observed everywhere in the universe.
It is apparent that forced changes, in Aristotle's view, are incomplete actualities of activities which are not essential, proper, and non-accidental to their subjects, and that have an external efficient cause
Because of the need for an efficient cause
, one argues back to God as creator: "God as creator is prerequisite for God as a teleological goal" (p.
14) We must distinguish between an actor, which can be a notional entity consisting of people, and an agent, the person who is actually an action's efficient cause
Related to this issue is the problem of how God can be both an efficient cause
of the cosmos as well as its final cause; for if God is both final and efficient cause
, and these causes are different, then duality creeps into God, yet God is supposedly simple.
that the determinative question is a factual one: whether the frozen pipe or the mold was the dominant and efficient cause
of the loss," Judge William Jay Riley wrote for a three-judge Eighth U.
There is, Aquinas asserts, no known instance "in which a thing is found to be the efficient cause
of itself, because in that case it would be prior to itself, which is impossible.
The four causes illuminate four ways in which a natural being or a crafted being can be understood: the efficient cause
(the maker or doer), the material cause (the stuff the object is made of), the formal cause (the shape of the being which is connected to its use), and the final cause (the reason the being is made--its purpose).