dna

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Embryonic Stem Cells Generated Without Use Of Embryos Or Retroviral Vectors To Add Exogenous DNA To Host Cells
Toward that end we developed the episomal reprogramming method to ensure that the resulting iPSCs are free of exogenous DNA, and this CIRM grant validates that method as researchers worldwide will access the resulting iPSC lines for disease research.
Today, the most widely used methods for the production of transgenic farm animals are direct microinjection of foreign DNA into the pronuclei of fertilized eggs, nuclear transfer using genetically modified embryonic or somatic donor cells and viral-based constructs as vectors for the introduction of exogenous DNA into embryos.
As such, the invention may be used for the insertion of exogenous DNA sequences into the bacteria of the invention.
Aerosol-resistant tips were used throughout the protocol to prevent contamination with exogenous DNA.
However, concerns about exogenous DNA permanently incorporated into the cells have limited development in this area.
Cambridge, MA; 617-349-0271) announced the United States Patent and Trademark Office has issued United States Patent 6,187,305 relating to a gene therapy method where exogenous DNA is inserted into vertebrate cells in vitro through a process called homologous recombination, also known as gene targeting.