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Related to Extraneous variable: Intervening variable, Moderator variable, research hypothesis, Research design
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When the appropriate extraneous variables are built into the equation and controlled, there usually is no difference between CTE and other students on standardized test scores.
Calibration pictures were taken in a controlled environment to minimize effects of extraneous variables.
My policy is that gun tests are always done with factory ammo so there's no opportunity for extraneous variables to slip in.
Because such databases usually include studies designed by many different investigators who generally do not seek to address in a controlled fashion the relationship of interest to the meta-analyst, such comparability on extraneous variables is not to be expected.
One correctional study also found impressive evidence of long-term recidivism reduction, apparently accounting for all relevant extraneous variables.
In this study, the author observed for extraneous variables that might better explain the results and none were found; however, it is the reversal condition, which allows the experiment to have internal validity.