Popper famously argues that resting the scientific credentials of a theory on its falsifiability
by potential negative instances is superior to inductivist standards: while the former yields a negative verdict on the scientific status of theories such as Freudian psychoanalysis--that are indeed of dubious scientific status--the latter accords them scientific status.
In discussing this second point, when he refers to issues of scientific truth he mostly seems to be referring to what is at least the popular understanding of the falsifiability
criterion of philosopher Karl Popper: a theory is scientific only if it is vulnerable to being falsified.
requires that hypotheses are "framed in such a way that they can be refuted by straightforward observational tests" (Sir Karl Popper, cited in Bowler, 1992, pp.
What separates those that move forward from those that fall flat often comes down to one feature: falsifiability
Justice Blackmun provided a nonexhaustive list of four factors that judges may consider when deciding on the admissibility of scientific evidence: (1) whether the evidence can be and has been tested (known as falsifiability
or refutability); (2) whether the evidence has been subjected to peer review and publication; (3) the known or potential rate of error for the technique or evidence seeking to be admitted; and (4) the general acceptance of the technique or evidence in the scientific community.
The Popperian emphasis on falsifiability
, criticism, and provisional (but never unconditional) acceptance of scientific hypotheses clearly had an impact on Vargas Llosa's own understanding of the world: "Popper's theory of knowledge is the best philosophical justification for the ethical value that most characterizes democratic culture: tolerance.
Nevertheless, I stick to addressing the authors' criticisms of new class theory, which are related to (1) falsifiability
, (2) bias, and (3) popularity.
Daubert and many overwhelmingly believe falsifiability
and error rate to
Such claims, regardless of scientific falsifiability
, circulate widely, "sociobiology, evolutionary psychology, and related forms of biomythology provide a cache of irresistible motifs for telling stories about how we (or rather, some of us) are" these "stories about nature shape public perception and lend the authority of "science" to the everyday chatter of ideology" (Lancaster, 2003, p.
Chomsky's book The Minimalist Program is a sad example of spurious science, as it fails to satisfy basic scientific criteria, such as respect for data, unambiguous formulations, falsifiability
, and also, on a different level, simple good manners" (Seuren 2004: 4).
37) I refer here to classical theories of inductive reasoning and falsifiability
, such as are found in the work of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn, in which limitless examples can support an absolutizing conclusion or paradigm (e.
to global warming)," Walsh reminds his readers, in that infuriating way that global-warming pseudoscience has of avoiding falsifiability