91) Given his view that the Fifteenth Amendment
"substantially guaranties [sic] the equal right to vote to citizens of every race and color," Bradley was "inclined to the opinion that congress has the power to secure that right not only against the unfriendly operation of state laws, but against outrage, violence, and combinations on the part of individuals, irrespective of the state laws.
After Lincoln's assassination, Congress and the state governments settled that matter by passing the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments
, which gave the former slaves full civil rights and voting rights--but why was it necessary for exactly the same rights to be reenacted, after enormous struggle, nearly a century later, during the civil rights era?
The second period is between the early 1870s and the mid-1890s; African Americans were given the right to vote and to be elected because of federal election laws and because of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments
, though in the South redistricting aimed at diluting their vote and white violence during elections sought to keep Blacks away from the polls.
The right of African Americans to vote in federal elections could be enforced by the federal government either under the Fifteenth Amendment
or under the Times, Places, and Manner Clause of Article I, Section 4.
The Fifteenth Amendment
also matters for maintaining a loyal opposition.
Given that neither the President nor Congress was willing by this time to take any initiative in defending the Fifteenth Amendment
, itself the capstone of Reconstruction, Giles might well be said to mark the final moment in the demise of Reconstruction.
33, 43-44 (1965) (quoting JOHN MABRY MATHEWS, LEGISLATIVE AND JUDICIAL HISTORY OF THE FIFTEENTH AMENDMENT
As the judge saw it, the Fifteenth Amendment
was not self-executing and required additional legislation, including specific penalties for violations, before it could be enforced.
This book relates the history of the efforts of a coalition of white Democrats, Populists, and Republicans in Alabama to circumvent the Fifteenth Amendment
to the U.
1870: The Fifteenth Amendment
to the United States Constitution ratified, grants voting rights regardless of race.
Topics to be covered include race, gender, sexual orientation, housing, immigration, health care, juvenile justice, voting rights, family law, civil rights, including Second, Sixth, Eighth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendment
issues, banking, education, poverty, including welfare reform, the environment, and privacy rights.
history and see how it intersects with major events such as the Dred Scott decision (1857), the Civil Rights Acts (of 1866 and 1964), passage of the Fifteenth Amendment
(in 1870, guaranteeing blacks the right to vote), Jim Crow laws, Plessy v.