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You will eventually be at the point where there are so many fission product poisons and the fuel used up enough where you're not getting efficient fissioning, and the heat generation is not efficient and core has to be replaced," he added.
Additional factors that have to be taken into account include how the radioactive elements are distributed (whether uniformly or concentrated in a "sunken layer" at the core-mantle boundary), variations due to radioactive elements in the local geology (in KamLAND's case, less than 10 percent of the expected flux), antineutrinos from fission products, and how neutrinos oscillate as they travel through the crust and mantle.
Radiation research in the petroleum sector has been conducted for over five decades with a wide variety of radiation sources explored as potent energy sources including gamma-ray, fission products, electrons and neutrons.
However, Van Uffelen notes "despite promising results for the behaviour of fission products in UO2, and a better understanding of the basic phenomena, it is still too ambitious to conceive a fuel performance code based solely on fundamental computations.
The waste stream from PUREX reprocessing contains most of the radioactive fission products in the spent fuel, along with small quantities of unextracted uranium and plutonium.
In fact, between May 2 and May 8, 1986, the cloud passed over the UK twice, but fission products from the reactor explosion were deposited mainly on those areas where rain had fallen while the cloud was passing over - the northwest of England, North Wales, and south-west Scotland.
It's the U-235 atom that actually splits in two--that's fission, which releases heat and fission products.
Evaluation of amaranth components and research of the polysaccharide component fermentation to fractional fission products, UTB Zlin 2004.
The workshop concluded that the potential of current fusion technology to utilize the actinides for generating energy and destroying long-lived fission products calls for a greater international effort in the area of fusion driven sub-critical systems
But its reprocessing becomes difficult because of increases in fission products at high-temperature burning.