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7) There is some confusion between the use of the terms foederati and symmachoi in the Northern African context.
They and other foederati performed nonmilitary duties in times of peace, just as Roman legionaries did in peacetime.
That faith may have set them apart, but unlike the German tribes who were foederati in the Roman Occident, the Ghassanid were related ethnically and linguistically to the larger Arab component in the demographic landscape of Oriens.
The picture of the Ghassanids that emerges in the end is that of a refined society of sedentary and urbanized Arabs, who are zealous Christians of the Monophysite conviction, living in Oriens under the rule of their king, and who are Arab foederati of the Byzantine empire and its supporters against the Sasanid Persians and their Lakhmid Arab supporters in al-Hira, and against the encroachments of the pastoralist Arab nomads of the Arabian peninsula.
As for the case of 634, it is more likely that "a group of former foederati had demanded taxes/tribute from Jerusalem, and that the negotiations had not been satisfactorily concluded by Christmas.
BERSU, G, 1938, A sixth century settlement of German foederati, Antiquity 12: 31-43.
His specific subject is the "federate" Arabs of "the Byzantine administrative division known as the Diocese of Oriens"; that is to say, the Arabs established as frontier foederati of the Empire, serving as "the effective shield of Byzantium against the Arabian Peninsula" - the shield whose final shattering at the Battle on the Yarmuk in 638 "cost Byzantium the loss of Oriens in its entirety and terminated the proto-Byzantine period" of the Empire's history.