former

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former

adjective antecedent, bygone, earlier, foregoing, late, past, preceding, preexistent, previous, prior, pristinus, quondam, retired, whilom
Associated concepts: former adjudication, former conviction, former jeopardy, former marriage, former trial, former will
See also: aforesaid, antecedent, back, before mentioned, deceased, defunct, last, late, outdated, outmoded, preceding, preliminary, previous, prior
References in periodicals archive ?
To summarize, minor spectral differences have been reported in the F1 and F2 formant frequencies of the produced short and long Finnish vowels, and the biggest difference occurs between the high back vowels [u] and [u:].
The Lombard effect has been reported to cause measureable differences in vowel intensity and duration, and also in formant frequencies: ambient noise elevates the speech amplitude by 5-10 dB, increases word durations by 10-20%, and increases significantly the F1 and F2 frequencies, thus causing a shift in the vowel space (van Summers, Pisoni, Bernacki, Pedlow, Stokes 1988; Castellanos, Benedi, Casacuberta 1996; Beckford Wassink, Wright, Franklin 2007).
Using experimental methods, detection of roundedness is generally associated with formants 2 (strongly connected with front ~ back articulation), 3 and 4.
Not only do formants 3 and 4 provide information about roundedness, but also their wide variation between individuals offers clues concerning speaker-specific vowel quality.
Our two-stage experimental setup involves a pre-test, where the perceptual category boundary of the two vowels in each pair has to be found, and the main test, where three to four ambiguous formant structures at category boundaries with varied duration were presented to listeners.
The long and overlong quantity degrees of the mid-high vowel /o/ are close to each other in the F1/F2 space, but the short /o/ is more centralized approaching the formant space of the short front vowel /o/.
is close to the value of the first formant of the long o (498 Hz, 4.
To study the quality of the glottal stop the formant values of the overlong vowel a preceding the word-final consonant were measured in ten isolated words ending in [?
The structuralist element in Sacco's legal formants approach
The formant data for [e] and [i] was manually adjusted to correct the following artefacts.
The acquired data from Normal, PCV2, PRRS and MH parameters which include pitch, intensity, duration, and formants 1, 2, 3 and 4 were compared through one way analysis of variance and discriminant analysis using SPSS 16.
The poorer consonant score was consistent with the fact that acoustic features other than formants are required for their recognition and needed to be transmitted.