Kellogg, Frank Billings

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Kellogg, Frank Billings

Frank B. Kellogg. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
Frank B. Kellogg.
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

Frank Billings Kellogg was born December 22, 1856, in Potsdam, New York. He moved to Minnesota at age nine, received an education in law, and was admitted to the bar in 1877. Kellogg subsequently received numerous doctor of laws degrees from various institutions, including McGill University, Montreal, 1913; New York University, 1927; Harvard, 1929; Brown University, 1930; and Occidental University, 1931. He also received two doctor of Civil Law degrees in 1929, from Trinity College in Connecticut and Oxford University.

After his Admission to the Bar, Kellogg performed the duties of city and county attorney for St. Paul, Minnesota, and established a legal practice, specializing in corporation law. His expertise earned him the position of special counsel for the United States, and he participated in the case against the General Paper and Standard Oil trusts (United States v. Standard Oil Co., 212 U.S. 579, 29 S.Ct. 689, 53 L.Ed. 259 [1909]). He served as special counsel of the Interstate Commerce Commission to probe into the speculative dealings concerning the Harriman railroads.

Kellogg began a phase of government and diplomatic service in 1917, when he became U.S. Senator from Minnesota for a six-year term. He followed this with a one-year appointment as minister to Great Britain. From 1925 to 1929, he performed the duties of Secretary of State and negotiated treaties.

In 1928, Kellogg achieved international acclaim for his collaboration with Aristide Briand in the formulation of the Kellogg-Briand Pact, which denounced war as a solution to international disagreements. The pact was subsequently ratified by sixty-three nations. In 1929, the Nobel Peace Prize was bestowed upon Kellogg for his contribution to world peace.

"There are only two means of enforcing a treaty. One is by war, the other is by the overpowering strength of public opinion."
—Frank Kellogg

During the latter part of his life, Kellogg acted as judge of the Permanent Court of International Justice. He died December 21, 1937, in St. Paul, Minnesota.

Cross-references

Kellogg-Briand Pact.