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Wolf (12) in a review of 64 shoulders with the diagnosis of glenohumeral instability, found a humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligaments lesion in 6 patients (9.
Humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (HAGL) is an uncommon, although perhaps under-recognized, finding associated with anterior dislocation of the shoulder.
Next, the clever hook was passed through the inferior glenohumeral ligament (IGHL) and used to retrieve the free suture end and withdraw it out of the cannula.
The close relationship between the labrum, biceps tendon and glenohumeral ligaments, described as a "basket of fibres" (Davidson and Rivenburgh 2004), makes it difficult to differentiate between symptoms emanating from one or the other, based on clinical examination.
7] It is thought that traumatic anterior dislocations usually occur with rupture or avulsion of anterior supports (subscapularis, glenohumeral ligaments, and capsule).
8] Amongst 33 patients in our study, superior, middle and inferior glenohumeral ligaments were identified in 12.
It can be performed with the patient standing, sitting, or supine, and the test places the anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament (IGHL) and anterior capsule under stress (Fig.
Anatomy and function of the glenohumeral ligaments in anterior shoulder instability.
anterior instability may be created with release of the associated glenohumeral ligaments.
The static stabilizers of the joint include the capsule, the glenohumeral ligaments, the labrum, negative pressure within the joint capsule, and the bony congruity of the joint.
The glenohumeral ligaments are collagenous band-like structures that reinforce the thin capsular tissue.
10) In addition, the glenohumeral ligaments and capsule attach to the fibrocartilaginous zone of the labrum.