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County

A political subdivision of a state, the power and importance of which varies from one state to another.

A county is distinguishable from a city or Municipal Corporation, since a municipal corporation has a dual character, both public and private, while a county is established by the state and is considered to be an agency thereof. Through home rule, a municipality may make certain decisions on matters of local concern, while a county is controlled by the state and does the work of state administration.

In the state of Louisiana, a state political subdivision is known as a parish. Comparable to counties, parishes have no independent existence apart from the state but possess only such authority as the state grants them.

Status

The state constitution determines the procedures for the formation of a county. Certain states require a specific minimum size population or property value before a county is created. A county government that is too small can be either completely abolished or subject to a consolidation plan designed to merge urban and rural areas. Conversely, a county that becomes too large or diverse following an extended period of development can be divided by the state to form a new county.

The principle of Sovereign Immunity permits states to refuse to allow anyone to sue them. This doctrine protects counties from legal action to the same extent that the states they exist in are so protected. States and counties can only be sued where state law specifically permits it.

Boundaries

Ordinarily, the boundaries of a county are set by the state legislature. If a boundary is marked by a stream or river, the county extends to the center and remains there from the time of the county's creation, even if the stream subsequently changes course. When a lake is the boundary, the county line ordinarily extends to the bank or the low water mark. A boundary that is on the ocean extends to the three-mile limit offshore.

State law provides for the revision of the boundaries of counties. Certain state statutes proscribe the creation of a new county line too close to an already existing county seat. Ordinarily voters can petition for the expansion or division of a county where population and commercial growth justify it. Although citizens have no absolute right to prevent the alteration of county lines by state legislatures, the legislature cannot change boundaries for the purpose of diluting the voting power of some of the citizens in an election.

The state retains power to designate special districts for purposes of irrigation, flood control, fire protection, or library services, which do not affect the makeup of existing counties.

Government

The government of a county is located at the county seat, a city or town where court sessions are held and duties are performed by county officers. The county board, comprised of public officials who are elected or appointed to serve on it, is the body that manages the government of the county. Other county officials include sheriffs, clerks, surveyors, and commissioners responsible for certain areas such as highways and Human Rights.

The state gives counties express authority to purchase and sell property and to raise funds from taxes, licenses, or bond issues. Counties have state-granted authority to make provisions for public health, safety, welfare, and morals of its residents through the enactment and enforcement of ordinances and regulations. The state, however, has the authority to make the decision whether to create courts on the county level or to use counties to designate intrastate judicial districts.

government

(Administration), noun administratio, authorization, command, control, decision making, dominion, governance, gubernatio, guidance, management, power, procuratio, regnancy, reign, rule, rulership, state management, statecraft, statesmanship, stewardship, superintendence, sway

government

(Political administration), noun agency of the state, authority, body of office holders, congress, delegates, ii qui reipublicae praesunt, lawgivers, lawmakers, legislators, ministers, penes quos est reipublica, political community, political leaders, political regime, politicos, polity, public servants, representatives, ruling power, sovereign, state managers, statemongers, statesmen
Associated concepts: de facto government, de jure govvrnment, democratic government, federal government, governmental agency, governmental body, governmental function, governmental immunity, powers of government, provisional government
Foreign phrases: Privilegium non valet contra rempubliiam.A privilege is of no avail against the state.
See also: authorities, bureaucracy, civic, control, dominion, hierarchy, management, national, politics, public, regime, regulation, supervision

GOVERNMENT, natural and political law. The manner in which sovereignty is exercised in each state.
     2. There are three simple forms of government, the democratic, the aristocratic, and monarchical. But these three simple forms may be varied to infinity by the mixture and divisions of their different powers. Sometimes by the word government is understood the body of men, or the individual in the state, to whom is entrusted the executive power. It is taken in this sense when the government is spoken of in opposition to other bodies in the state.
     3. Governments are also divided into monarchical and republican; among the monarchical states may be classed empires, kingdoms, and others; in these the sovereignty resides in, a single individual. There are some monarchical states under the name of duchies, counties, and the like. Republican states are those where the sovereignty is in several persons. These are subdivided into aristocracies, where the power is exercised by a few persons of the first rank in the state; and democracies, which are those governments where the common people may exercise the highest powers. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 20. See Aristocracy; Democracy; Despotism; Monarchy; Theocracy.
     4. It should be remembered, however, that governments, for the most part, have not been framed on models. Their parts and their powers grew out of occasional acts, prompted by some urgent expediency, or some private interest, which, in the course of time, coalesced and hardened into usages. These usages became the object of respect and the guide of conduct long before they were embodied in written laws. This subject is philosophically treated by Sir James McIntosh, in his History of England. See vol. 1, p. 71, et seq.

References in periodicals archive ?
The main ceremony to pay homage to martyrs of Army Public School Peshawar will be held at Govt Higher Secondary School Manawala on December 16.
Taimur Kamal of Pakhtunkhwa Civil Society Network expressed concern on the bill and said that It is the right of the Govt to bring legislations and the civil society fully supports and recognize the right of the Govt.
He said the historic achievement of the govt is Pak-China Economic Corridor which will prove a game changer in the region.
The statement regarding not using 500 MW electricity is contrary to the fact, Pesco provided 1700 MW electricity against average quota of 1500 MW electricity throughout the Province which is not possible with out Federal Govt cooperation and help.
The confirmation of outstanding balances of a number of foreign loans is under verification between the federal and provincial govts as the disbursement under these loans are ongoing to the projects executed agencies.
Similarly she said govt was also endeavoring to improve life standard of the masses.
Similarly, private candidate Sana Zulfiqar got 631 marks in BA exams 2015 and stood first, whereas Rehab Nadeem of Govt College for Women Tandlianwala and Sundas Javaid of Govt College D-Type Colony were declared second and third with 628 and 624 marks, respectively, he added.
Mazari stated that because Nekokara showed loyalty to the state and the citizens; and went by the rules and procedures instead of pandering to the PMLN's personalised rule, he is now being victimised by the PMLN govt.
Addressing the meeting, the Chief Minister Sindh said that Govt land was public property and we to defend each inch of public property at any cost.
Talking to media afterwards, Ch Shujat Hussain said that the govt has got last chance to control the situation and Nawaz Sharif should resign, there was no other solution to set the matters right, if there was any then he would have certainly told that.
PESHAWAR -- The Home and Protection of Environment Minister, Punjab, Col Retd Shuja Khanzada here Thursday handed relief goods worth Rs 20 million to Govt of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa for assistance of the recently rain and thunderstorm victims of Peshawar division.
Tenders are invited for Electrification work in additional class room and activitiy room and library room 1 Govt boys school Devri 2 Govt boys H S Begamganj 3 Govt boys H S Sodarpur 4 Govt H S Khargon 5 Govt H S Hardot 6 Govt H S Noor Nagar 7Govt boys H S Bramohari 8 Govt boys H S Sultanganj 9 Govt H S Kiratnagar 10 Govt H S Beekalpur ditrict Raisen on SOR effective from 2008