Grotius, Hugo

(redirected from Grotius)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to Grotius: Pufendorf

Grotius, Hugo

Hugo Grotius.

Hugo Grotius, also known as Huigh de Groot, achieved prominence as a Dutch jurist and statesman and is regarded as the originator of International Law.

Grotius was born April 10, 1583, in Delft, Netherlands. A brilliant student, Grotius attended the University of Leiden, received a law degree at the age of fifteen, and was admitted to the bar and began his legal practice at Delft in 1599. It was at this time that he became interested in international law, and, in 1609, wrote a preliminary piece titled Mare liberum, which advocated freedom of the seas to all countries.

In 1615, Grotius became involved in a religious controversy between two opposing groups, the Remonstrants, Dutch Protestants who abandoned Calvinism to follow the precepts of their leader, Jacobus Arminius, and the Anti-Remonstrants, who adhered to the beliefs of Calvinism. The dispute extended to politics, and when Maurice of Nassau gained control of the government, the Remonstrants lost popular support. Grotius, a supporter of the Remonstrants, was imprisoned in 1619. Two years later he escaped, seeking safety in Paris.

In Paris, Grotius began his legal writing, and, in 1625, produced De jure belli ac pacis, translated as "Concerning the Law of War and Peace." This work is regarded as the first official text of the principles of international law, wherein Grotius maintained that Natural Law is the basis for legislation for countries as well as individuals. He opposed war in all but extreme cases and advocated respect for life and the ownership of property. The main sources for his theories were the Bible and history.

"What the consent of all men makes known as their will is law."
—Hugo Grotius

Grotius spent the remainder of his years in diplomatic and theological endeavors. From 1635 to 1645, he represented Queen Christina of Sweden as her ambassador to France. He pursued his religious interests and wrote several theological works. Grotius died August 28, 1645, in Rostock, Germany.

Mentioned in ?
References in periodicals archive ?
According to Grotius, Aquinas, and Isidore, natural law is common to all nations, (311) and Blackstone wrote that natural law is "binding over all the globe, in all countries, and at all times.
At the same time, Grotius reasoned, vicarious liability for a monarch's debts was a rule that his subjects would be likely to accept consensually.
Augustine, for example, sanctioned the use of force for religious reasons against the Donatists, Francisco de Vitoria maintained the distinction between barbarians and civilized peoples in respect to the rules of war, while Grotius was happy to slant the laws of war to favor the causes he preferred.
Following Grotius, he argues for 'a higher sense of what is owed' (34) and of mercy ('what we owe each other as fellow members of the human race with equal dignity and deserving of the same respect' [81]) than has otherwise traditionally governed the soldiering profession.
But for a sovereign, at least, there is a natural right, according to Grotius, to wage war to protect his rights.
Augustine and Grotius developed the idea that the use of force by states was governed by the Just War doctrine," Holbrook observes.
4) In De Jure ac Pacis, Grotius writes that "restitution is due, from the authors of the war, for all evils inflicted: and for anything unusual which they have done, or not prevented when they could.
3) Of the many translations and edited publications of this work, I prefer Hugo Grotius, De lure ac Pacis Libri Tres, vol.
Along with the later chapter on just-war theorist Hugo Grotius, the coverage of Cicero keeps the book fresh and unpredictable.
Grotius wrote to defend his country's right to use trade routes to India and the East Indies, over which Spain and Portugal claimed a monopoly.
At Jena, he was exposed to the writings of earlier natural-law theorists such as Hugo Grotius and under the influence of such luminaries, Pufendorf set forth his own theories of man's rights and responsibilities under the law of nature and nature's God.
The present volume is the result of a research project carried out at the Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies (Leiden University, The Netherlands).