Arabic and non-Arabic, printed and in manuscript, including the important Sharia court records, and applying a balanced methodology combining empirical and theoretical approaches, Nelly Hanna has produced a thorough, in-depth analysis of how Egypt's traditional economy based on the guild system
had been able to engage in capitalist modes of diversification of capital investment and commercialization long before the impact of capitalist industrial Europe devastated Middle Eastern economies in the nineteenth century.
This would, Turgot argued, eliminate the privileges asserted by some artisans and free up industries which felt hampered by the guild system
She also has an MA in business management and wrote her dissertation on Spar's utilisation of the Guild system
Consumerism' goes back a long way--to assizes of bread and ale, laws of weights and measures, and even to the guild system
, which tried to give purchasers well-made goods, made by a properly-trained workman who in return was guaranteed a fair wage.
It was the offspring of revolutionary individualism (the abolition of the guild system
set entrepreneurs free) and the rise of applied crafts.
scientific, philosophical and medical texts translated since the twelfth century from Arabic and from Greek; the other main feature of the century was the formation of new academic institutions, modeled somewhat on the medieval guild system
We have all seen how industrial mechanization has changed medieval guild system