Juris Doctor

(redirected from Juris doctorate)

Juris Doctor

The degree awarded to an individual upon the successful completion of law school.

Juris doctor, or doctor of Jurisprudence, commonly abbreviated J.D., is the degree commonly conferred by law schools. It is required in all states except California (which includes an option called law office study) to gain Admission to the Bar. Gaining admission to the bar means obtaining a license to practice law in a particular state or in federal court.

Until the 1930s and 1940s, many states did not require a person to have a law school degree in order to obtain a license to practice law. Most lawyers qualified for a license by working as an apprentice for an established attorney for a specified period. By the 1950s most states required a law school degree. State legislatures established this requirement to raise the standards of practicing attorneys and to restrict the number of attorneys. The degree offered by most Colleges and Universities was called a master of laws (L.L.M.) degree. In the 1960s, as colleges and universities increased the requirements for a law degree, the J.D. replaced the L.L.M. as the primary degree awarded by law schools.

The specific requirements for a J.D. vary from school to school. Generally, the requirements include completing a minimum number of class hours each academic period, and taking certain mandatory courses such as contracts, torts, Civil Procedure, and Criminal Law in the first year of law school. All states require that students pass a course on Professional Responsibility before receiving a J.D. degree.

Further readings

Morgan, Thomas D., and Ronald D. Rotunda. 1993. Professional Responsibility: Problems and Materials. 5th ed. Westbury, N.Y.: Foundation Press.

Tuttle, Cliff. 1995. "Juris Doctor: The Versatile Degree." Pennsylvania Law Weekly 18 (December 11).

Cross-references

Legal Education.

Juris Doctor (J.D.)

n. the law degree granted upon graduation by many university law schools with accepted high standards of admission and grading. This often supersedes the Bachelor of Laws in recognition that the law curriculum entitles a person to a graduate degree.

References in periodicals archive ?
Kopelowitz received a bachelor's degree from Indiana University and his juris doctorate from Brooklyn Law School.
Haviland holds a juris doctorate degree from Georgetown University Law Center and has experience in project and structured finance, mergers and acquisitions and other general corporate matters for established companies and start-ups.
Purcell earned a bachelor of science degree from California Lutheran College and a juris doctorate degree, magna cum laude, from Pepperdine Law School, where she was a member of the Law Review.
He received his juris doctorate from South Texas College of Law in 1996 and was admitted to the Bar that same year and earned a Bachelor of Arts in 1992 from the University of Texas at Austin.
He also holds a Juris Doctorate degree from Thomas Jefferson School of Law in San Diego.
Morton holds an undergraduate degree in economics from Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, and was awarded his juris doctorate at the University of Missouri - Columbia.
Hollander received his bachelor's degree from Indiana University and his juris doctorate, with a concentration in real estate transactions and finance and intellectual property, from New York Law School.
She earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from Bowling Green State University and a Juris Doctorate from the University of Toledo College of Law.
Ross earned his Bachelor of Business Administration degree from the University of Michigan, a Juris Doctorate degree from Wayne State School of Law in 1965 and a Master of Law degree in Taxation from New York University in 1966.
He holds a juris doctorate and a bachelor of science with distinction in business administration and economics from the University of Nebraska.
Halpern has a Bachelor of Arts from the City University of New York and a Juris Doctorate from Brooklyn Law School.
He earned a Juris Doctorate degree from Seton Hall University School of Law in Newark, where he served as an editor of the Legislative Law Journal, and a Bachelor of Arts degree, cum laude, from the University of Rochester.