Tissue-resident macrophages, such as Kupffer cells
in the liver, not only protect against pathogens but also help nourish and maintain the cells (i.
For example, endotoxin leaking from the gut as a result of alcohol interacts primarily with Kupffer cells
, which, in turn, causes secretion of TNF-[alpha], a cytokine that promotes a wide range of inflammatory responses, which, in turn, lead to the production of additional inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8 (Diehl 2001; McClain et al.
The role of kupffer cells
in carbon tetrachloride intoxication in mice.
Numerical density of Kupffer cells
on the area (Nak)--It expresses the number of Kupffer cells
per unit area (per [cm.
As they also contain Kupffer cells
, there is uptake of the RE agents, resulting in marked signal intensity loss (Figure 7) that may be less than that of surrounding liver (30% in FNH vs.
Zhou, "Oxidative products from alcohol metabolism differentially modulate pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in Kupffer cells
and hepatocytes," Cytokine, vol.
However, alcohol's effects on the gut and on immune cells, such as Kupffer cells
, reduce liver tolerance and thus increase the potential for persistent inflammation.
Hepatic osteodystrophy in primary biliary cirrhosis: a possible defect in Kupffer cell
mediated cleavage of parathyroid hormone.
are causally responsible for the mitogenic effect of peroxisome proliferators.
Acetaldehyde accumulation suppresses Kupffer cell
release of TNF-alpha and modifies acute hepatic inflammation in rats.
In contrast, MMP-9 was readily detectable in white blood cells but could hardly be detected in liver tissue, where it is localized in Kupffer cells
(26,27) and has been found mainly in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (28).
During the liver disease course, Kupffer cells
trigger inflammation process, and it has been shown that HCV modulates inflammatory responses by inducing interleukin (IL)-1[beta] overproduction and secretion by Kupffer cells
and that oxidative stress markers have been shown to correlate with severity of inflammation.