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First, I will present the results of the x-height and line spacing measurements.
The guidelines about the use of line spacing are often related to the typesize.
The general rule seems to be that it is usually necessary to add space between lines of text and that the larger the type, the greater the line spacing required.
I found a large variation in line spacing in the 330 documents.
A second finding is that the line spacing of the texts is strongly related to the different point systems.
The strength of the relationship between x-height and line spacing is indicated by a correlation coefficient.
A second indication that typographic guidelines and practical documents differ is that the line spacing for type with the same x-height varies considerably.
Unfortunately, it is not possible to relate the actual measures of x-height and line spacing of text to the original point sizes in which a text was specified.
Figure 5 shows two versions of a text with identical x-heights and identical line spacing.
We can say with some confidence that a serifed type with a small or moderate x-height set to moderate line length could comfortably have line spacing equal to the type size ("set solid").
Sadly, the defaults in our dtp software encourage us to forget the importance of line spacing.
Put simply, too little space prevents our distinguishing between words (especially in rapid reading, scanning, or skimming), and too much creates white gaps that risk overwhelming the line spacing and also creates meaningless white patterns ("rivers" of white that meander through the lines) that compete with the significant black of the type.