Marshall Plan


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Marshall Plan

After World War II, Europe was devastated and urgently needed an organized plan for reconstruction and economic and technical aid. The Marshall Plan was initiated in 1947 to meet this need.

The originator of the plan, U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall, introduced it in a speech at Harvard University on June 5, 1947. He pointed out two basic reasons for providing aid to Europe: the United States sought the reestablishment of the European countries as independent nations capable of conducting valuable trade with the United States; and the threat of a Communist takeover was more prevalent in countries that were suffering economic depression.

In 1947 a preliminary conference to discuss the terms of the program convened in Paris. The Soviet Union was invited to attend but subsequently withdrew from the program, as did other Soviet countries.

Sixteen European countries eventually participated, and, in July 1947, the Committee for European Economic Cooperation was established to allow representatives from member countries to draft a report that listed their requirements for food, supplies, and technical assistance for a four-year period.

The Committee for European Economic Cooperation subsequently became the Organization of European Economic Cooperation, an expanded and permanent organization that was responsible for submitting petitions for aid. In 1948, Congress passed the Economic Cooperation Act (62 Stat. 137), establishing funds for the Marshall Plan to be administered under the Economic Cooperation Administration, which was directed by Paul G. Hoffman.

Between 1948 and 1952, the sixteen-member countries received more than $13 billion dollars in aid under the Marshall Plan. The plan was generally regarded as a success that led to industrial and agricultural production, while stifling the Communist movement. The plan was not without its critics, however, and many Europeans believed the Cold War hostilities between the Soviet nations and the free world were aggravated by it.

References in periodicals archive ?
Students supporting the plan should make two or three arguments explaining why the Marshall Plan would be in the best interests not only of Western Europe, but also in the best interests of the U.
In this case they would not be implemented willingly by Arab leaders whose co-operation would be necessary to make a Marshall plan work.
It will also provide better background for understanding whether and to what degree the mechanisms and works of the Marshall Plan and of the OEEC are relevant to the issues faced by todays economies in transition.
No doubt that the Marshall Plan was designed to offset the spread of communism in Europe, while contributing greatly to the economic divide between the rich West and poor East.
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and a Marshall Plan with the help of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has become a pre-requisite of development," said Dabdoub, a Palestinian who heads the National Bank of Kuwait, the country's biggest lender.
Even adjusted for inflation, that's twice as large as the Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe after World War II.
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This was to launch his version of the famous US Marshall Plan, but this time directed at fighting poverty in Africa.
Let us consider the post-war European Recovery Programme, the Marshall Plan.
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