dna

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Overall, studies suggest that more than 1/10,000 people (perhaps even as much as 1/3,000) have detectable pathologies relating to mtDNA mutations.
The mtDNA lineage of Taoyuan pig is close to Lower Changjiang River Basin and Central China Type pig breeds
2012) demonstrated that given similar levels of mtDNA lesions in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, treatment with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate had little effect on mitochondrial function, whereas [H.
RESULTS--Twelve unique mtDNA haplotypes were found among 69 specimens of Cyprinella, whereas 19 haplotypes were found among 65 specimens of Dionda (Table 1).
Dr Ashdown-Hill's discovery of a potential mtDNA sequence for Richard III and his siblings will now come into play in the genetic tests - and he hopes that it may also be possible to use Y-DNA from a Plantagenet male line which he identified several years ago.
Current molecular diagnostic methods for the detection and quantification of mtDNA mutations are based on the screening of a panel of common point mutations followed by the quantification of the mutant load.
From more than 10,000 samples of mtDNA obtained from people across Europe, Sykes and his colleagues identified seven major genetic lineages (and more recently an eighth).
Therefore, the authors sought to create a learning plan that would address this topic, with a particular focus on human diseases associated with inherited mtDNA mutations.
ST] values estimated from variations in partial sequences from the mtDNA control region although the minimum spanning network did not result in separation into distinct clades.
Mitochondrial DNA analysis was conducted on concatenated cytochrome-oxidase 1 (COI) and cytochrome-b (Cyt-b) mtDNA sequences, and microsatellite analysis was conducted on twelve polymorphic loci of the salamander DNA from rivers in the Tennessee Valley, primarily from rivers in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Cherokee National Forests.
The complete sequencing of the human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and the identification of pathogenic mtDNA mutations have facilitated recognizing and diagnosing mitochondrial disorders.