dna

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Cross linked plasmid DNA-gelatin nanospheres containing about 25-30% DNA were found to be more resistant to nuclease digestion than naked DNA and induced greater gene expression in mice after intramuscular injection (17).
As far as we know, naked DNA poses none of the risks associated with viral vectors.
Q: Are you using naked DNA to transport the new genes into the body, like that used at St.
Lee testified, "The naked DNA in the vaccine was probably stabilized through a chemical binding between the mineral aluminum and the phosphate backbone of the double-stranded DNA.
When most people think of DNA, they picture the iconic spiraling ladder of naked DNA.
Vaccines currently under development include subunit vaccines (9), naked DNA vaccines (10,11), and attenuated mycobacteria, including recombinant BCGs expressing immunodominant antigens and cytokines (12).
For 2 decades, away from the noise of the latest ups and downs for viral vectors, chemists and materials scientists have been doggedly investigating and improving on other strategies such as using capsules that protect and guide DNA into cells and methods of introducing naked DNA.
The naked DNA or the adenoviruses are simply a means of getting any kind of gene expressed.
A: Naked DNA is simply a means of getting any kind of gene into the body.
The gene can be introduced into a mammalian host by way of an expression vector either as naked DNA or complexed to lipid carriers, particularly cationic lipid carriers.
We thought we would [use] the naked DNA, without the viral vector," says study coauthor Sharon M.