Ne exeat republica
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NE EXEAT REPUBLICA, practice. The name of a writ issued by a court of
chancery, directed to the sheriff, reciting that the defendant in the case
is indebted to the a complainant, and, that he designs going quickly into
parts without the state, to the damage of the complainant, and then
commanding him to cause the defendant to give bail in a certain sum that he
will not leave the state without leave of the court, and for want of such
bail that he the sheriff, do commit the defendant to prison.
2. This writ is used to prevent debtors from escaping from their creditors. It amounts in ordinary civil cases, to nothing more than process to hold to bail, or to compel a party to give security to abide the decree to be made in his case. 2 Kent, Com. 32 1 Clarke, R. 551,; Beames' Ne Excat; 13 Vin. Ab. 537; 1 Supp to Ves. jr. 33, 352, 467; 4 Ves. 577 5 Ves. 91; Bac. Ab. Prerogative, C; 8 Com. Dig. 232; 1 Bl. Com. 138 Blake's Ch. Pr. Index, h.t.; Madd. Ch. Pr. Index, h.t.; 1 Smith's Ch. Pr. 576; Story's Eq. Index, h.t.
3. The subject may be considered under the following heads.
4.-1. Against whom a writ of ne exect may be issued. It may be issued against foreigners subject to the jurisdiction of the court, citizens of the same state, or of another state, when it appears by a positive affidavit that the defendant is about to leave the state, or has threatened to do so, and that the debt would be lost or endangered by his departure. 3 Johns. Ch. R. 75, 412; 7 Johns. Ch. R. 192; 1 Hopk. Ch. R. 499. On the same principle which has been adopted in the courts of law that a defendant could not be held to bail twice for the same cause of action, it has been decided that a writ of ne exeat was not properly issued against a defendant who had been held to bail in an action at law. 8 Ves. jr. 594.
5.-2. For what claims. This writ can be issued only. for equitable demands. 4 Desaus. R. 108; 1 Johns. Ch. R. 2; 6 Johns. Ch. R. 138; 1 Hopk. Ch. R. 499. It may be allowed in a case to prevent the failure of justice. 2 Johns. Chanc. Rep. 191. When the demand is strictly legal, it cannot be issued, because the court has no jurisdiction. When the court has concurrent jurisdiction with the courts of common law, the writ may, in such case, issue, unless the party has been already arrested at law. 2 Johns. Ch. R. 170. In all cases, when a writ of Be exeat is claimed, the plaintiff's equity must appear on the face of the bill. 3 Johns. Ch. R. 414.
6.-3. The amount of bail. The amount of bail is assessed by the court itself and a sum is usually directed sufficient to cover the existing debt, and a reasonable amount of future interest, having regard to the probable duration of the suit. 1 Hopk. Ch. R. 501.